A History Of God's Chosen People

The people of Israel have had a remarkable history and their prophesied future is every bit as amazing. Let's take a look through the pages of the Bible and history and learn about their origins, their fascinating history and then discover what is ahead for these people as written in the pages of the Bible. The reader will be in for many surprises and exciting discoveries.

What is Israel's origin?

After Adam and Eve were cast out of the Garden of Eden, mankind filled the face of the earth and developed its own customs and civilization without God's guidance. Over the next 1600 years, not only had mankind multiplied rapidly on the face of the earth but so had man's evils.

“Then the Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. And the Lord was sorry that He had made man on the earth, and He was grieved in His heart. So the Lord said, 'I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth, both man and beast, creeping thing and birds of the air, for I am sorry that I have made them.' But Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord” (Gen. 6:5-8).

God then brought the Flood on the whole world but spared Noah and his family who survived by building a giant ark which housed them and a great many of the land animals (Gen. 6-8). Their descendants once again began to be fruitful and multiplied over the face of the earth.

Noah had three sons – Shem, Ham and Japheth. Shem was the father of the white nations of the earth, Ham fathered the black peoples and Japheth fathered many of the Mediterranean, Oriental and Latin American peoples.

It was through the line of Shem that were born the ancestors of the people of Israel. Craig White writes the following in his paper “Israel – Descendants of Arphaxad”:

Shem fathered Arphaxad, the light-bringer. From Arphaxad we have Salah, followed by Eber, Peleg, Reu, Serug, Nahor, Terah and then Abram. This is the line that God has worked with both spiritually/religiously and physically/racially.

Protestant commentators in the mid-nineteenth century through to the early twentieth, wrote of a 'righteous line' from Noah, Shem, Arphaxad, down to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Israel). God chose to work through these people due to certain attributes instilled within them.

Arphaxad's brother, Asshur, was the father of the ancient Assyrian people from whom descend the modern German-speaking peoples today. As we will see there has always been a certain sibling rivalry and antagonism between the Israelites and the peoples descended from Asshur.

The United Church of God (UCG) booklet “The United States and Britain in Bible Prophecy” states the following about the origins of Israel and why God chose them for service:

Why did God choose Abraham to be His servant and, through him, bring ancient Israel into existence as a nation? What did God have in mind, and why did He call Abraham into His service at that particular time in history?

After the Flood in the days of Noah [2305 BC], the earth's inhabitants once again began to turn their back on God. By Abraham's time all peoples had again grown corrupt. God then set in motion a major aspect of His plan to offer salvation to mankind. Selecting Abraham was a crucial step in God's long-term plan to turn all nations back to Him. The remainder of the Bible is woven around His plan to reconcile all humanity to Himself…

Then, shortly after the Flood, when humanity again began to oppose the ways of God, the Tower of Babel became the symbol of their rebellion (Genesis 11:1-9). In the context of this rebellion, and the founding of the city-state system of human governance accompanying it, God initiated a new phase in His plan to lead all nations to worship Him.

He decided to select one faithful man and develop his descendants into a group of influential nations chosen for the explicit purpose of teaching and illustrating His values and way of life.

A part of that plan involves God's desire that all nations recognize the stark difference between these two conflicting ways of life [The way of GIVE as opposed to the way of GET as Herbert Armstrong used to put it]. He wants every person to learn that His ways alone can consistently bring true and lasting blessings to all people…

The story of the Israelites is the story of a single family the Creator God chose for His service out of all the earth's peoples…God forged ancient Israel, under His careful guidance, from 12 related tribes, or extended families, whose ancestors were Abraham, his son Isaac and Isaac's son Jacob…

Israel was another name for Jacob. When God began to work directly with Jacob He named him Israel, meaning "one who prevails with God" or "a prince with God" (Genesis 32:24-30). Israel's descendants were also to be known as "the seed of Abraham," "the House of Isaac," "the House of Jacob" or simply "Jacob" - and by their individual tribal names of Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Zebulun, Issachar, Dan, Gad, Asher, Naphtali, Benjamin and Joseph.

The patriarch Jacob later adopted Ephraim and Manasseh, his grandsons through his son Joseph, as his own sons in regard to his inheritance. As a result the nation of Israel has historically been said to consist of either 12 or 13 tribes, depending on whether the descendants of Joseph are counted as one tribe (Joseph) or as two (Ephraim and Manasseh) (p. 5-6).

Israel was the name that God gave to Abraham's grandson, Jacob, which means “Overcomer with God”. Jacob had 12 sons and from those sons descended the 12 tribes of Israel. Only one of those 12 tribes are the Jewish people or the Jews as they are called.

Jacob, or Israel as His name was changed to, had twelve sons (Gen. 49). His favourite was Joseph. His older brothers were envious of the special treatment that Jacob paid to Joseph. Their envy became so great that they sold him to slave traders and told Jacob that he was killed by a wild animal (Gen. 37).

Through an amazing set of circumstances Joseph eventually became vizier of Egypt. Through a famine which forced Jacob's family to have to go to Egypt to buy grain, Jacob was eventually re-united with Joseph and moved his whole family to the rich Nile delta area called Goshen in Egypt around 1662 BC (Gen. 46).

Exodus 12:40 appears to say that the Israelites were in slavery in Egypt for a total of 430 years yet Galatians 3:16-17 says that from Abraham leaving for the land of Canaan until the Exodus was also 430 years. The Greek translation of the Old Testament (the Septuagint) corrects this misunderstanding. It properly translates Exodus 12:40 this way:

“The sojourning of the children and of their fathers, which they sojourned in the land of Canaan AND in the land of Egypt was four hundred and thirty years.”

There were 215 years between Abraham leaving for Canaan around 1877 BC to Jacob's family (the Israelites) moving down to Egypt and then exactly 215 years between Jacob (Israel) going to Egypt around 1662 BC and the Exodus around 1447 BC. Joseph lived another 71 years and then after his death a pharaoh who did not know Joseph dealt harshly with these “foreigners” living in Egypt. He made slaves of them. This period of slavery probably began about 100 years before God raised up Moses and delivered them from their slavery in Egypt.

ighty hand God brought ten devastating plagues on Egypt which eventually made Pharaoh let the Israelites leave Egypt. He then changed his mind after they had left and took his whole army with him to bring them back. The Israelites found themselves trapped between Pharaoh's army and the Red Sea. God then supernaturally parted the waters of the Red Sea and they were then able to flee Pharaoh's army (Exodus 14). The waters collapsed back on Pharaoh and his army after the Israelites finished crossing to the other side.

After this great miracle they journeyed to Mt Sinai where God gave them the Ten Commandments and offered to be their God and bless them physically if they would obey Him. This proposal by God and the acceptance by the nation of Israel became known as the Old Covenant.

Why did God call Israel?

In his book “Mystery of the Ages” Herbert W. Armstrong asks these important questions:

“Did it ever strike you as most unusual that the Great God should have raised up the ancient nation Israel to be His chosen people? Consider these seemingly paradoxical facts:

“God says He is not a respecter of persons. Is He, then, a respecter of nations? Does He have a favourite? Did you ever realize that God denied His chosen people salvation--save only their prophets? That the chosen nation was given only material and national promises--that God's Holy Spirit was inaccessible to them?

Did it ever occur to you that the Holy Bible is the book of and concerning only that one people Israel? And that other nations are mentioned only if and as they came into contact with Israel?” (p.132).

Those are very interesting questions. Let's now look at three reasons why God chose the nation of Israel and how this relationship between God and this chosen nation plays such an important part in God's plan to save mankind. So why did God choose Israel?

[1] To be a model nation that would encourage other nations to want to come under God's rule.

In Exodus 19:3-8 we read:

“And Moses went up to God, and the Lord called to him from the mountain, saying, “Thus you shall say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel…if you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant, then you shall be a special treasure to Me above all people; for all the earth is Mine.

And you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation…So Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and laid before them all these words which the Lord commanded him. Then all the people answered together and said, 'All that the Lord has spoken we will do.'”

It wasn't a matter of God playing favourites. He said that He didn't call them because they were more numerous or any greater in influence than other nations (Deut. 7:6-8). He said that they were the least of nations when He called them out of Egypt and that He was going to remain faithful to His promises to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob to make of them a group of influential nations. God called them not because they deserved it but for a service which would ultimately benefit all mankind.

In Deuteronomy 4:6-8 God told them:

“Therefore be careful to observe them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the peoples who will hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people. For what great nation is there that has God so near to it, as the Lord our God is to us, for whatever reason we may call upon Him? And what great nation is there that has such statutes and righteous judgments as are in all this law which I set before you this day?”

God wanted a free, obedient and happy people free of the many burdens governments put on people. Other peoples would look at them thinking, “How can we be free from the burdens our governments put on us” and from that could spread the idea, “Hey, let's worship Israel's God. Let Israel's God be our king.” It was God's intent that the whole world be blessed through the descendants of Jacob. Craig White makes these comments about this point:

Following on from Arphaxad, racially and religiously, Israel was to be a special people before God and to thereby bring light, truth and righteousness to the world…Israel was also God's bride and wife and He the husband according to Ex 19; 20; Jer 3:14; Ex 16; Jer 31:32. For God to court and choose as wife one of the nations, tells us something about the people He chose (Israel – Descendants of Arphaxad).

[2] To prove that even with the knowledge of God's laws and every other advantage that man still needs the Holy Spirit to live by God's way of life.

Herbert W. Armstrong in the quote above said that the Israelites were denied the Holy Spirit [and spiritual salvation as a result] and that they were only offered physical, material blessings. Only a select few were given the Holy Spirit since the extra help of the Holy Spirit was needed for the jobs that God had in mind for them. What proof is there that Israel was denied access to the Holy Spirit with the exception of their prophets?

In Numbers 11:16-17, 29 we read:

“So the Lord said to Moses: 'Gather to Me seventy men of the elders of Israel, whom you know to be the elders of the people and officers over them; bring them to the tabernacle of meeting, that they may stand there with you. Then I will come down and talk with you there. I will take of the Spirit that is upon you and will put the same upon them; and they shall bear the burden of the people with you, that you may not bear it yourself alone'…

Then Moses said to him [Joshua], 'Are you zealous for my sake? Oh, that all the Lord's people were prophets and that the Lord would put His Spirit upon them!'”

Moses wished that God would give His Holy Spirit to all of the people but he realized God had decreed that only a select few would be given the Holy Spirit to help them fulfill special jobs that God had in mind for them. The apostle Peter when he spoke of the Old Testament prophets said that “the Spirit of Christ…was in them.” (1 Pet.1:10-11) David also mentioned that he had the Holy Spirit (Psalm 51:11).

Why did God choose Israel and then deny them His Holy Spirit and spiritual salvation? Herbert W. Armstrong answers this question the following way:

Educated men and scientists today [say]…'Give us sufficient knowledge, and we will solve all problems and eradicate all evils -- we will create utopia!' Up to that time [the Exodus], mankind had been denied spiritual knowledge and fulfilment from God. God now decided to give them knowledge of his law -- his kind of government -- his way of life! He was going to prove to the world that without his Holy Spirit their minds were incapable of receiving and utilizing such knowledge of the TRUE WAY OF LIFE.

He was going to demonstrate to them that the mind of MAN, with its one spirit, and without the addition of God's Holy Spirit, could not have spiritual discernment -- could not solve human problems, could not cure the evils that were besetting humanity. The nation Israel would be his guinea pig to demonstrate that fact. Also they had the quality heredity of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (Israel). God had chosen a nation of almost perfect original strain in its generations -- its ancestry. So God entered into a covenant with them, making them HIS NATION. It also represented a MARRIAGE covenant, with Israel the wife, promising obedience to her husband -- GOD. It was the physical type of the yet-to-come spiritual NEW COVENANT…

Here was a people of almost clear racial strain, and the God believing heredity of Abraham, Isaac and Israel. Two requisites make a human whatever he becomes in life: heredity and environment. Heredity involves what has been inherited by birth in such areas as health, intelligence and character tendencies. Environment includes all external influences and self-determined motivations -- whether good or evil.

Heredity -- if of good and high quality -- may start one off at an advantage. An inspiring environment, uplifting influences and right self-motivation may further improvement…God started his chosen nation off -- even though brought out of slavery -- with all the natural advantages of a [quality] heredity. God pulled them out of slavery and gave them a new and fresh start. One might say they had everything God-given going for them” (Mystery of the Ages, p.140-141).

Craig White adds to that with these comments:

God was using a nation which was small in number, yet with incredible qualities and abilities, to confound the other nations. There is nothing here to suggest that they were inferior which some speculate to be the case. Rather, they possessed attributes which gave them a capacity to rule, be inventive and be sober and law-abiding over and above others. Yet it was to little avail without the indwelling of the Holy Spirit (Israel - Descendants of Arphaxad).

The apostle Paul in Romans 8:7-9 wrote that “the carnal mind [the natural mind without God's spirit] is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, nor indeed can be.” Human nature tends to follow the path of least resistance. Often it takes more effort to do what is right than do what is wrong. Because of this extra effort needed to do what is right, we need the extra power that God provides through His Holy Spirit.

It is the Holy Spirit that helps us to even comprehend God's truth and His way of life. Paul wrote: ”For what man knows the things of a man except the spirit of the man which is in him? Even so no one knows the things of God except the Spirit of God” (1 Cor. 2:11). God said that they lacked an ability to fully comprehend what He was doing with them and the way of life He instructed them in (Deut. 29:2-4).

Did God know that they would fail to live by His way of life and break their covenant without the help of His Holy Spirit?

In Deuteronomy 5:29 God said that he wished that “they had such a heart in them that they would fear Me and always keep all My commandments, that it might be well with them and with their children forever!” God however realized that they didn't have the heart to keep His laws and keep the covenant which they made with God because they lacked His Holy Spirit.

In Deuteronomy 31:20-21 God said:

When I have brought them to the land flowing with milk and honey, of which I swore to their fathers, and they have eaten and filled themselves and grown fat, then they will turn to other gods and serve them; and they will provoke Me and break My covenant. Then it shall be, when many evils and troubles have come upon them, that this song will testify against them as a witness; for it will not be forgotten in the mouths of their descendants, for I know the inclination of their behavior today, even before I have brought them to the land of which I swore to give them.”

[3] To write through the painful lessons of experience that only living God's way leads to happiness and breaking God's laws only brings misery.

Those who fail to learn the lessons of history are doomed to repeat them. That's why God has had the history of Israel recorded for us. Their lessons of experience showed time and time again that only living God's way leads to happiness and breaking God's laws will only bring misery.

The apostle Paul wrote the following in 1 Corinthians 10:1-11 to show how their examples have been recorded for our benefit so we don't repeat their mistakes:

“Moreover, brethren, I do not want you to be unaware that all our fathers were under the cloud, all passed through the sea, all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea, all ate the same spiritual food, and all drank the same spiritual drink. For they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them, and that Rock was Christ. But with most of them God was not well pleased, for their bodies were scattered in the wilderness. Now these things became our examples, to the intent that we should not lust after evil things as they also lusted. And do not become idolaters as were some of them. As it is written, 'The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.'

“Nor let us commit sexual immorality, as some of them did, and in one day twenty-three thousand fell; nor let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed by serpents; nor complain, as some of them also complained, and were destroyed by the destroyer. Now all these things happened to them as examples, and they were written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the ages have come.”

On this point Raymond McNair writes:

“They were divinely chosen to serve as an example for the rest of humanity of what happens to those who obey or disobey the Creator God. As one Jewish man painfully remarked in the aftermath of World War II, 'Why doesn't He choose someone else for a while?'” (America and Britain in Prophecy, p.4).

A Brief History of Ancient Israel

After freeing them from slavery in Egypt God finally brought them into the Promised Land under the leadership of Joshua and after several years they conquered the land driving most of the Gentiles out of it (1406-1400 BC). For the next 400 years their spiritual condition waxed and waned during the period of the Judges who God raised up from time to time to deliver them out of the hands of various peoples around them.

Finally in the time of the prophet Samuel they rejected God as their king and asked for a human king. Samuel anointed Saul, a tall Benjamite, who was humble to begin with but had a weakness of not following God's instructions and was later rejected as king by God. He reign from 1051-1011 BC. David was then anointed and after the death of Saul he ruled Israel from 1011-971 BC. God helped David through his military efforts extend the Israelite kingdom by the death of his death from the Euphrates to the Sinai.

After David, who ruled righteously and was called by God “a man after my own heart”, his son Solomon reigned. Solomon asked God for wisdom to rule the people when God offered him anything, including riches. God gave him fantastic wisdom and great wealth. The Solomon era was the greatest era in the history of ancient Israel ruling from the Euphrates to the Sinai and a relatively peaceful era after the many wars during his father's time of expanding the area of the kingdom.

Solomon's weakness was taking wives of the peoples around him to the ridiculous point where he had 700 wives and 300 concubines. These foreign women turned his heart away from God to other pagan gods. There is strong indication that he did turn back to God at the end of his life. He wrote the book of Ecclesiastes towards the end of his life which covers many of the bitter lessons that he learned during his life.

Anciently they were at their best when Solomon ruled a mighty Israelite empire (971-931 BC) that briefly stretched from Egypt to the Euphrates River. Rick Sherrod makes the following comments on this period of Israel's history:

Solomon's reign brought a version of the very things which will come in earnest under Christ's beneficent worldwide rule: peace (I Kings 4:24-25, Isaiah 2:4, Micah 4:4), happiness and prosperity (I Kings 4:20, 22-23, 10:14-23, 27, Amos 9:13, Micah 4:4), wisdom and the availability of spiritual knowledge and understanding (I Kings 4:29-34, 10:1, 4, 6-9, 2 Chronicles 1:12, the Book of Proverbs, most of which is of Solo uthorship, and Isaiah 11:9), world renown (I Kings 4:21, 10:1, 6, 23-24, Ps. 72:8-11, 19, Isaiah 2:3, Zechariah 9:10), and a massive program of building and construction (I Kings 6:1, 7:1-2, Isaiah 58:12, 61:4, Ezekiel 36:10, 33-36).

Students of the Solomonic period also describe it as an age of intellectual revival and learning (see Lawrence Boadt, Reading the Old Testament, p. 477; James Pritchard, Solomon and Sheba, p. 30; and Andre Lemaire's essay in Ancient Israel edited by Hershel Shanks, p. 106)--something which will also be a major feature of Christ's program to reeducate and elevate the newly subjugated populations of the world (Zechariah 8:23, 14:16-19, Revelation 2:27). 35. Indeed, the Solo ge of glory is a biblical forerunner of even greater fulfillments of the physical, material, and national promise made to the descendants of Abraham (Israel in Prophecy: Where are the Lost Ten Tribes?, p.28).

Stephen Collins in his book “The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel…Found!” has produced evidence that shows that like the British empire they also had colonies in many places around the world such as Carthage and even in North America. He writes:

Earlier Israelite nations and empires also fulfilled many of the birthright promises to Abraham. The Phoenician/Israelite Empire under King Solomon controlled Gibraltar, many land trade routes, the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean and much of the Indian Ocean. Carthage also controlled Gibraltar, the Western Mediterranean, and the Atlantic sea routes to North America.

The Parthians and Scythians [both peoples predominantly Israelite] were land powers, not naval powers, but their strategic location controlled the world's overland trade routes between the continents of Europe, Africa and Asia, and Parthia controlled the strategic "Caspian Gates" which sat astride the invasion routes of ancient Asia (p. 390).

Evidence is coming forth to show the Israelite and Phoenician sailors may have visited distant places such as Australia (where hieroglyphics have been found – Egypt was allied to Israel in Solomon's day) and Hawaii (the Hebrew for priest, 'kohen', is almost identical to the Hawaiian word for priest – 'kuhuna').

The wealthy Solomon era came at a cost - heavy taxation on the people. They demanded the taxes be lightened by his son Rehoboam. Rehoboam got bad counsel and raised them higher resulting in a secession of ten tribes under the leadership of Jeroboam (1 Kings 12). The nation of Israel split into two nations, the northern Kingdom of Israel who's capital was in Sa and the southern Kingdom of Judah (from whom the Jews descend) who's capital was in Jerusalem.

Had Jeroboam trusted God, who offered His support if he would obey Him, the Kingdom of Israel would have flourished. Instead, controlled by leadership insecurity, he barred the peoples of the new ten-tribed kingdom from going up to Jerusalem for the Feast days and moved their Feast of Tabernacles to the eighth month in case they might be moved by emotion to want to reunite with the Kingdom of Judah.

The books of Kings records that not one of the Kingdom of Israel's kings ruled righteously but did evil instead and did not depart from the sins of Jeroboam. Could the sins of Jeroboam have been those changes to the religious calendar? As they no longer had the correct form of religion they had little chance of having the true substance of God's true religion. Judah, on the other hand, had fluctuations. Some kings did evil while other kings like Hezekiah, Jehoshaphat, Josiah and Asa were loyal to God. Those fluctuations in power and prosperity were in direct proportion to the degree with which they obeyed or disobeyed God's laws.

The northern Kingdom of Israel (Israelites but NOT Jews) were eventually conquered by Assyria around 722 BC and carried away to near the shores of the Caspian Sea and have never returned to Palestine, as a nation. They included the birthright tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh and eventually became known as the “Lost Tribes of Israel”. The southern Kingdom of Judah was conquered and taken into exile by the Babylonians around 585 BC. A remnant of the Jews returned to Palestine 70 years later. Jesus Christ was born amongst the Jews 500 years later. In 70 AD the Jewish people revolted against the Romans and were defeated and consequently scattered amongst the nations for nearly 2000 years until the Jewish state of Israel was created in 1948.

Where are the 'lost' tribes of Israel today?

The Jewish people, descended mainly from the tribes of Judah, Benjamin and Levi are fairly visible to the world today but where did the other tribes, known as the “lost” ten tribes of Israel, go to? Let's look at the evidence that points to where they migrated to.

The Jewish Encyclopedia states the following about the connection between the Nordic peoples of NW Europe and the House of Israel:

"The identification of the Sacae, or the Scythians [recognised by most historians as the ancestors of the British peoples] with the Ten Tribes because they appear in history at the SAME TIME and very nearly in the SAME PLACE, as the Israelites removed by Shalmaneser, is one of the chiefs supports of the theory which identifies the English people, and indeed the whole Teutonic race, with the Ten Tribes. Dan is identified sometimes with Denmark and sometimes with the Tuatha da Danaan of Irish Tradition" (p.250)

Whilst in Sa , the house of Israel became known as the "House of Omri"(1 Kings 16:23) or Beth-Omri and the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser II, now in the British Museum, reveals the Assyrian equivalent of "Omri" as Khumri and the "House of Omri" as Bit-Khumri. This is the origin of the Babylonian title Gimiri.

"The description 'Son of Khumri' is thought merely to show that Jehu was an Israelite, because Israelite territory was called 'Bit-Khumri'" (The Ancient records of Assyria and Babylonia, Vol.1, p46).

This is also confirmed in Hastings Dictionary of the Bible which says:

"The Assyrians first became acquainted with Israel in the time of Omri, and they called the country of the TEN TRIBES OF ISRAEL 'the land of the house of Omri' even after the extinction of his dynasty"(Vol.1, Article, Omri, p.688).

“The Old Testament in the Light of Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia” states that:

"Omri was likewise pronounced in accordance with the older system, before the grain became ayim. Humri shows that they said at the time Ghomri" (3rd ed., p.339).

Raymond McNair in "Keys to North-West European Origins" says the following:

Here follows excerpts from a translation of the Behistun Rock Inscriptions by L.W.King and R.Thompson, "Thus sayeth Darius, the king, 'These are the provinces which are subject unto me, and by the grace of Auramanda became I king of them'"(The inscriptions of Darius the Great of Behistun). This translation translates all of the words on the Behistun Rock Inscriptions in three parallel columns. The first column contains the Persian, the second the Susian or the Elamite, the third contains the Babylonian translation.

These inscriptions mention twenty-two provinces. The nineteenth province listed by all three of these parallel columns is called in the Persian language "Scythia" (Phonetic: Saka), in the second column this same province is called in the Susian language "Scythia" (Phonetic: Sakka) and the third column in the Babylonian language is translated, "in the land of the Cimmerians" (Phonetic: Gi-mi-ri)(p.132).

Cimmerians is merely a corruption of Sa ns while Sacae or Sakka is derived from the patriarch Isaac. According to Gawler in his book "Our Scythian Ancestors":

"The word Saacae is fairly and without straining our imagination translatable as Isaacites"(p.6).

The name Saxons is also derived from Sacsons meaning Isaac's sons. Also the words Scythian and Scot are derived from the Hebrew Succoth which means a booth, tabernacle or temporary dwelling.

"Whether at the same time these Gimiri or Saka are really Cymric Celts we can not positively say...But...the Babylonian title of Gimiri, as applied to the Sacae, is not a vernacular but a foreign title, and may simply mean THE TRIBES"(History of Herodotus, Bk. IV., Appendix, Note 1).

No nation or people have been spoken for so long and so consistently by the words "the tribes" as the people of Israel.

According to the Behistun Rock Inscriptions the Gimiri (Ghomri) were the same people as the Cimmerians, the Sacae and the Scythians, who gave birth to the Cymri Celts, Saxons, Goths and other peoples of North-Western Europe. Turner states that:

"The Kimmerioi of the Greeks were the Kimbroi of the Greeks, and the Cimbri (Kimbri) of the Latin writers"(History of the Anglo-Saxons, p.28).

Robert Owen in his book “The Kymry” says:

"In leaving the far east, they, the Kimmerians or Kymry must have occupied a country south of the Caucasus, extending from the river Araxes to the Palus Habotia or Sea of Azof, where Herodotus remarks on the many places yet bearing the name of Kimmerian in his time"(The Kymry,p.11).

This is exactly where the Israelites were exiled to by the Assyrians! Grant says that:

"The Nordics also swept down through the Thrace into Greece and Asia Minor, while other large and important groups entered Asia partly through the Caucasus Mountains but in greater strength they migrated around the northern and eastern sides of the Caspian-Aral Sea"(The Passing of the Great Race, p.214).

Again we see that the ancestors of the Anglo-Saxons and Scandinavians migrated from exactly the same area that the Israelites were deported to after the Assyrians invaded Israel.

The Israelites after their exile became known as the Scythians around the northern shore of the Black Sea and the Sacae or Sakka in the area of Persia. They came via the Danube, Central Europe, Greece and the Baltic into Scandinavia, Britain and North-West Europe after numerous different migrations.

In History of the Anglo-Saxons Turner writes:

"The Anglo-Saxon, Lowland Scot, Normans, Danes have all sprung from that great fountain of the human race which we have distinguished by the term Skythian or Gothic… Sakai-Suna or the Sons of Sakai, abbreviated into Saksun, which is the same sound as Saxon, seems a reasonable etymology of the word 'Saxon'"(Vol.1, p.56, 87).

God prophesied in the Bible, "In Isaac your seed shall be called" (Gen.21:12) and the Saxons or Sacasons are, in fact, the sons of (I)saca. John Wilson in his Languages of Europe states that:

"The basis of the English language may, to a remarkable extent, be found in Hebrew. Many of our most common words, and names of familiar objects, are almost pure Hebrew."

The ancient Welsh language is very similar to the Hebrew and has the same characteristic of almost being vowel-less as is the Hebrew.

The Scythian language indicates that the Scyths were descendants of the Hebrew-speaking "Lost Ten Tribes". The Scyths spoke Scythiac which is classified this way:

"Scythiac...Scythian (language)...There is a strong similarity between Hebrew and the Scythian languages"(A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, 1971 ed., Vol.VII, art.,"Scythiac").

The Scythians were nomads, dwelling mainly in tents from which the word Scythian is derived. They raised crops, but their main talent was in tending cattle, sheep, goats and especially horses. They were acknowledged to have been the best horseman of their day, and no cavalrymen could match their skill when it came to fighting on horseback.

"The graves of Scythian kings and nobles revealed many objects of gold and bronze, which bear witness to outstanding technical and artistic skill"(World History from Earliest Times to 1800, Vol.3, p.320).

Raymond McNair makes these comments about archaeological proof of the Israelite origins of the Scythians:

Authentic gravestones have been found in the region of the Crimea (or Krim--named after the Cimmerians), north of the Black Sea, bearing Hebrew inscriptions. Three of note were referred to by J.W. Bosanquet in his article, "Synchronous History," published in the 1873 Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, volume 2. One reads, "This is the tombstone of Buki, the son of Izchak, the priest; may his rest be in Eden, at the time of the salvation of Israel. In the year 702 of the years of our Exile." The second states, "Rabbi Moses Levi died in the year 726 of our Exile." And the third says, "Zadok, the Levite, son of Moses, died 4000 after the creation, 785 of our exile."

Counting from an eighth century B.C. captivity, the years just mentioned indicate that these people died around the beginning of the Christian Era. Bosanquet says that, according to Neubauer's History of the Crimean Tombs (p. 29), the Israelites there claimed "to be descended from the Ten Tribes." So, many descendants of those Israelites who were deported to Assyria still lived north of the Black Sea at this time.

How these people had gotten there is recorded in an amazing epigraph found on another tombstone in this same region. Here is C. Coffin's translation of A.E. Harkavy's German version (published in Academia Scientiarum Imperialis Memoires, St. Petersburg, vol. 24, no. 1, 1863, p. 9):
I Jehuda ben Mose ha-Nagolon of the East country, ben Jehuda ha-Gibbor of the tribe of Naphtali, of the generation Schillem, who went into the exile with the exiles, who were driven away with Hosea, the king of Israel, together with the tribes of Simeon and Dan and some of the generations of the other tribes of Israel, which (all) were led into exile by the enemy Shalmanesser from Schomron [Sa ] and their cities to Chalach [Halah], that is, Backack and to Chabar [Habor], that is, Chabul and to Hara, that is, Herat, and to Gosan [Gozan], the cities of the exiled tribes of Reuben, Gad and the half of Manasseh, which Pilneser [Tiglath-Pileser] drove into exile and settled there (and from there they scattered themselves over the whole land of the East as far as Sinim)--when I returned from wandering in the land of their exile and from journeying in the dwelling places of the descendants of their generations in their resting places of the Land of Krim [the Crimea] (America and Britain in Prophecy, p.42).

These powerful, nomadic tribes first appear in the very same area that the Israelites were taken captive and deported to 50 years earlier.

"The Scythians...apparently first appear in written history in the annals of Esarhaddon (the Assyrian king from 681-668 B.C.) and seem to be centred at that time in what is today Northwest Iran"(The Anchor Bible Dictionary, Vol.5, art.Scythians).

The Parthian empire ruled much of Mesopotamia and the area known today as Iran around the time of the Roman Empire. Stephen Collins writes the following on just how powerful an empire they were and who they were:

Parthia was a vast ancient empire which ruled over Asian territory at the same time that the Roman Empire ruled over the Mediterranean region. Although Rome launched many wars of aggression against Parthia, none succeeded in their aims of subjugating the Parthians. In fact, Parthia administered many crushing defeats to Roman armies as these two ancient "superpowers" oppose other for centuries. In spite of the fact that much is known about Parthia's history, it is almost totally ignored in history…

A famous nineteenth century historian, George Rawlinson, wrote books extensively documenting the history of the Parthian empire. They were entitled “Parthia” and “The Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy”. The Greco-Roman classical writers recorded a voluminous amount of information about Parthia and Rawlinson extensively cites the classical writers in his histories of the Parthians. He introduces “The Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy” with these words:

"...the picture of the world during the Roman period…put before students in “Histories of Rome,” was defective, not to say false, in its omission to recognise the real position of a counterpoise to the power of Rome, a second figure in the picture not much inferior to the first, a rival state dividing with Rome the attention of mankind and the sovereignty of the known earth. Writers of Roman history have been too much in the habit of representing Rome as…a Universal Monarchy, a Power unchecked…having no other limits than those of the civilised worId…the truth seems to be that…from the first to the last ...there was always in the world a Second Power, civilised or semi-civilised, which in a true sense balanced Rome, acted as a counterpoise and a check…This power for nearly three centuries (B.C. 64 - A.D. 225) was Parthia.”

The concept that Rome had equal rivals in the ancient world will come as a surprise to most readers...The lack of information on Parthia likely results from the fact that history has been taught almost exclusively from a Greco-Roman perspective. This pre-occupation with Greco-Roman history has led to major misunderstandings about the reality of the ancient world. In earlier chapters we learned that ignorance of Phoenician and Carthaginian history has led to modern man's unawareness of the role of North America in ancient history. This was due to the Phoenician / Carthaginian monopoly of Gibraltar which for centuries, denied the Greco-Romans any maritime access to lands beyond the Mediterranean Sea. As a result, Greece and Rome were far less advanced than the Phoenicians and Carthaginians in understanding world geography.

Rawlinson states, “there was a strong conviction on the part of those who came in contact with the Parthians, that they were Scyths” and adds "that the Scythic character of the Parthians is asserted in the strongest terms by the ancient writers. Rawlinson cites the classical historians Strobe, Justin and Arrian in stating:

"The manners of the Parthians had, they tell us, much that was Scythic in them. Their language was half-Scythic, half-Median. They armed themselves in the Scythic fashion. They were, in fact, Scyths in descent, in habits, in character.”

This Scythian origin of the Parthians is further confirmed by the fact that many times in their history, ousted Parthian kings sought refuge among the Sacae tribes of the Scythians or replenished their armies with soldiers from Scythian tribes. This recurrent Parthian reliance on the Sacae tribes of Scythia in times of trouble indicates that the Parthians and Scythians were natural allies (The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel!…Found, p.205-207).

As we have already seen the Scythians, who were the same race as the Parthians, were predominantly Israelites.

The Parthians and Scythians are the people written about by Josephus as the extremely numerous descendants of the ten tribes of Israel. Josephus, who lived in the first century A.D., wrote the following about the ten tribes of Israel

"The ten tribes are beyond the Euphrates till now, and are an immense multitude, and not to be estimated by numbers" (Antiquities of the Jews, Book XI, Chapter V, Section 2, Emphasis added).

At the time that Josephus wrote the Euphrates River had long been the recognized border between the Roman and Parthian Empires. For Josephus to write (from his perspective within the Roman Empire) that the ten tribes were beyond the Euphrates River was another way of saying the ten tribes were “in Parthia”, even as many Americans would recognize the phrase “beyond the Rio Grande” as a euphemism for “in Mexico (The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel…Found!, p.220).

“Wise men from the east” (Matt. 2:1) came to visit Christ when He was born. According to Stephen Collins the Greek word for wise men is “magian” and literally means “Persian astronomer or priest” (The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel…Found!, p.268). Since Parthia ruled the area of Persia these Magi would have been from Parthia. As Christ was a descendant of David he may well have been related to the ruling class of the Parthians.

This connection with the Parthian ruling class may have been part of the reason for the reluctance that the Romans had to crucify Christ, only doing so when backed into it by the Jewish religious leaders. As “all Jerusalem” (Matt. 2:3) was troubled at the arrival of the Magi this was a very public event and it must have been a large caravan of officials with much treasure and military escorts to guarantee their protection. The Israelite Parthians were looking forward to the Messiah coming just as the Jews were at the time.

The historical term “barbarian” is very misleading for the Celtic and Scythian tribes as they migrated westward from the area around the Black and Caspian Seas. Though, to some degree nomadic, they had a highly developed culture. The pre-Roman British relics at the British Museum show a higher degree of technical skill than the Roman and Greek relics of the time. While Rome conquered most of its huge empire with its impressive war machine it never could conquer the Britons. It became a Roman dominion through a treaty in AD 120 in the days of Emperor Hadrian.

Israel has been a great blessing on the world (Gen.12:3) because of what they have contributed to civilisation in terms of culture, technical inventions and many other things. The descendants of ancient Israel from the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Scythians, Parthians, Barbarians, Celts and Anglo-Saxons truly have a most fascinating and profound history.

The Scottish Declaration of Independence, written in 1320 AD by King Robert the Bruce (who was popularized in the 1995 movie Braveheart) states:

"The nation of the Scots has been distinguished by many honours, which passing from greater Scythia through the Mediterranean Sea and through the Pillars of Hercules, and sojourning in Spain, amongst the most savage tribes through a long course of time, could nowhere be subjugated by any people, however barbarous, and coming thence 1200 years after the outgoings of THE PEOPLE OF ISRAEL they, by their many victories and infinite toil, acquired for themselves the possessions in the west which they now hold."

Robert the Bruce was only one of a number of other prominent individuals who knew the English-speaking peoples descended from the tribes of Israel. In 1588 Sir Francis Drake, writing to his old friend, John Foxe, said:

"Wherefore I shall desire you to continue faithful remembrance of us in your prayers, that our purpose may take good effect, as God may be glorified, His church, our Queen and country preserved, and the enemies of truth utterly extinguished, that we may have continued peace IN ISRAEL."

Most of Scotland, Ireland and Wales were populated by the Celts who were a mixture of Judah (Scots) and Danites (Irish) while England was settled by the Britons (Ephramites) prior to the Roman occupation, many of who were evangelized by Joseph of Arimathea and some of the apostles who were charged by Christ to preach to the lost sheep of the House of Israel (Matt. 10:6). In the fifth and sixth centuries AD the Angles (Manassites) and the Saxons (Ephraimites) crossed the English Channel from western Germany.

The Angles settled in the eastern Anglia counties such as Norfolk and Suffolk. The Saxons settled the rest of England and pushed the original Britons further west in England. By far the heaviest concentration of people who migrated to America from England came from the Anglia counties where the Angles had settled. God was separating many people of the half-tribe of Manasseh from their Ephraimite brothers.

Oddly enough the Angles, whose descendants compromise much of America's population, gave their name to England which means “Angle-land”. The word Angle is probably derived from the Hebrew word “Eglah” meaning “Heifer of the wild ox or unicorn”, which is one of the animals on the British coat of arms (Today, Tomorrow and the Great Beyond, p.97).

Stephen Collins makes these comments on the similarities between the tribe of Manasseh, the Scythians and the Americans:

When Manasseh received its inheritance in ancient Palestine, it was given an unusually large area of land. It included two portions of land divided in the middle by the River Jordan. Even at the beginning, the tribe of Manasseh preferred "wide-open spaces"…When America was being settled, Manassehites were especially drawn to North America because of its promise of considerable living space. When Americans spread westward toward the Pacific Ocean, they migrated in wagon trains. In doing so, they carried on a tradition of the ancient Scythians. The Scythians also migrated via covered wagons, which are described in the following words:

“The wagons in which the women and children travelled had from four to six wheels. They were covered with felt roofs and the space inside was divided into two or three compartments. Little clay models of these prototypes of the modern caravan have been found in some... Scythian burials.”

Like the cowboys of the American "West," the Scythians also 'excelled at lassoing." With their horse riding, lassoing, and “wagon trains”, Scythian culture resembled the pioneer days of the American West (without the six-shooters). Perhaps the power of genetic influence is more potent than generally realized. As in ancient times, the modern Manassehites found their home in the "wide open spaces" of North America…

It is apparent that God drew Manassehites from Europe to North America to found the United States of America (the great single nation of Manasseh, that was prophesied in Genesis). God stated in Amos 9:9 that he “wouldn't lose a single grain [a person or family unit]” of the Israelites as they were “sifted” through the nations, showing that God kept track of all the families of the Israelite tribes in order to fulfil be prophecies about them.

While Manasseh loves wide-open spaces, Ephraim has a habit of sending out colonies from a cramped homeland. Although Ephraim, was the chief tribe of Israel, its inheritance in Palestine was very small. Since Ephraim, like Manasseh, was promised a huge population by God, where did their growing numbers go?…Israel colonized widely in North Africa, Europe and even North America. Because Ephraim's inheritance in Palestine remained small, it had to "export” its growing population to new colonies (The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel…Found!, p.390-392).

Raymond McNair makes these comments about how God kept track of the Israelites and guided other Manassites still in northern Germany to America:

[In the Encyclopedia Britannica we read]: "There have been great oscillations in the actual emigration by sea. It first exceeded 100,000 soon after the Franco-German War (1872, 126,000), and this occurred again in the years 1880 to 1892. Germany lost during these thirteen years more than 1,700,000 inhabitants by emigration. The total number of those who sailed for the United States from 1820 to 1900 may be estimated at more than 4,500,000....

"The greater number of the more recent emigrants [to the U.S.] was from the agricultural provinces of northern Germany--West Prussia, Posen, Pomerania, Mecklenburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Hanover, and sometimes the emigration reached 1% of the total population of these provinces. In subsequent years the emigration of native Germans greatly decreased" (11th ed., vol. 11).

What is so special about northern Germany? Notice this reference from Ripley's Races of Europe: "Northwestern Germany--Hanover, Schleswig-Holstein, Westphalia--is distinctly allied to the physical type of the Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes. All the remainder of the Empire--no, not even excluding Prussia, east of the Elbe--is less Teutonic [long-headed] in type; until finally in the essentially Alpine broadheaded populations of Baden, Wurttemburg, and Bavaria in the south, the Teutonic race passes from view" (p. 214).

It is generally known that the northern "Low Germans" differ from the southern "High Germans." But there were differences even among the Low Germans.

Another source comments, "A separate study, in the case of Germany at least would seem to indicate that those [immigrants] who went to the U.S.A. in the 1800s were somehow different from those who stayed behind and German officials themselves remarked on such a difference. The claim for such a distinction is based on consideration of physical types, areas-of-origin within Germany, religious orientation and social outlook" (Yair Davidy, The Tribes, Russell-Davis Publishers, p. 430). It seems America's Puritan founders were indeed right in believing that God was sifting a whole nation! (America and Britain in Prophecy, p.33-34)

In Isaiah 11:13 we read about an interesting millennial prophecy that highlights another difference between the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh which has been fulfilled in modern times:

“And the envy of Ephraim shall depart, and the foes of Judah shall be cut off; Ephraim shall not vex Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim."

Stephen Collins makes these comments on this interesting prophecy:

Notice that while “Ephraim” is prophesied to have a “vexing” relationship with the tribe of Judah until the Messianic Kingdom (the 'kingdom of God') is established, "Manasseh" is not mentioned as having a vexing relationship with Judah. By omitting Manasseh, this prophecy indicates that Manasseh will not have a "vexing” relationship with Judah in the latter day period preceding the Messianic kingdom on earth. How has this been fulfilled in our modern times?

The British and Jews have had a difficult relationship in modern times. In fact, much "bad blood" between the two was caused during the time of the English Mandate over Palestine from 1945 till 1948. The Jews felt the English had a pro-Arab bias during this period of English rule which predated Jewish Independence, and the English regarded the Jews as "terrorists" who killed British troops, blew up the King David Hotel, etc. The British navy intercepted boatloads of Jewish refugees, preventing their arrival in "the Holy Land (the movie “Exodus" offers insights into this period of time). The British blockade (along with Jewish acts of sabotage and English executions of Jewish saboteurs) led to very hostile Jewish-British relations.

While the British (Ephraim) and Jews (Judah) were barely on speaking terms, the United States of America (Manasseh) was one of the Israelis' strongest advocates in the United Nations, and the United States officially recognized Jewish Independence as soon as it was proclaimed. In the various Jewish-Arab wars, the United States of America was Israel's great ally and protector, rushing arms and support to the Jewish state in its wars. Sometimes, the United States was the only friend Israel had at the United Nations. It was the United States which midwifed the famous “Camp David Accords" which united President Jimmy Carter with Anwar Sadat of Egypt and Menachem Begin of Israel in 1978 in a famous photo of reconciliation.

The prophecy of Isaiah 11:13 has been fulfilled in modern times. While Ephraim (the British) and Judah (the Israelis) have, indeed, “vexed” each other, Manasseh (the United States) has had a very favorable relationship with the Israelis (The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel…Found!, p.396-397).

Israel was to number at least in the tens of millions (Gen.24:60). They did not go east for Asia is inhabited by the Oriental, Indian, Arabic and Russian peoples. They did not go south into Africa or to Latin America. Bible prophecy shows they went west (Isa.49:12, Hos.11:10, 12:1). By the process of elimination they must be west of Central Europe because that is where the Beast power to punish Israel will come from.

We have only hit the tip of the iceberg with all of these powerful quotes on the origins of the Anglo-Saxon peoples. There are volumes of history and information that truly back up the fact that the NW Europeans and the English-speaking peoples have descended from the very same Israelites that came out from Egypt under Moses nearly 3500 years ago.

Is the Throne of David still with us today?

David was a man after God's own heart (1 Sam. 13:14). Because he was a man with a tender conscience toward his Creator, God made a separate and distinct covenant with him in addition to the one He had made with Israel. When David wanted to build a house for God, He sent a message to David through the prophet Nathan:

“When your days are fulfilled and you rest with your fathers, I will set up your seed after you, who will come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build a house for My name and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. I will be his Father and he shall be My son. If he commits iniquity, I will chastise him with the rod of men and with the blows of the sons of men. But My mercy shall not depart from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I removed from before you. And your house and your kingdom shall be established forever before you. YOUR THRONE SHALL BE ESTABLISHED FOREVER” (2 Samuel 7:12-16).

This promise is again repeated in Psalm 89:

“I have make a covenant with my chosen, I have sworn unto David my servant, Your seed [dynasty – Moffatt] will I establish for ever and build up your throne to all generations” (verses 3-4).

So far as the world knows the last king to sit on the throne of David was Zedekiah of Judah when the Babylonians conquered Judah and took them off captive to the land of Babylon in the year 585 BC. The throne of David was never restored when the Jews returned to the land of Palestine after their captivity.

God promised to David that his throne would last to all generations or FOREVER. If God has not failed to keep His word we need to look for David's throne (described as the throne of the Eternal in 1 Chronicles 29:23) elsewhere than the land of Palestine where the Jewish state of Israel is today.

When Judah was taking by Babylon into captivity Nebuchadnezzar killed Zedekiah and all his sons (Jer. 37:1-9), seemingly destroying the royal dynasty. Former King Jeconiah (Jehoiachin) was at that time, in the dungeons of Babylon and he had sons to continue David's line. It was through his line of descendants that Jesus Christ was born (Matt. 1:12-16). God decreed the following about Jeconiah:

“Thus saith the Lord, Write ye this man childless, a man that shall not prosper in his days: for no man of his seed shall prosper, SITTING UPON THE THRONE OF DAVID, AND RULING ANY MORE IN JUDAH”! (Jer. 22:30).

As far as the throne of David was concerned he was childless. God had determined that none of his children would ever occupy the throne. God's commission to the prophet Jeremiah was to be:

“over the nations and over the kingdoms, to root out and to pull down, and to destroy and to throw down, to build, and to plant” (Jer. 1:10).

God would use him to help keep the royal line alive and plant it in another land. Nebuchadnezzar did not kill the King Zedekiah's daughters who escaped with Jeremiah (Jer. 43:5-7, Isa. 37:32-33). It would be through one of the daughters of Zedekiah that God would keep the throne of David alive. What land did God lead them to? In Ezekiel 17 God says:

“I will also take of the highest branch of the high cedar, and will set it; I will crop it from the top of his young twigs a tender one [a daughter] and will plant it upon a high mountain and eminent. In the mountain of the height of Israel will I plant it and it shall bring forth boughs, and bear fruit (verses 22-23).

God directed them to NW Europe (Isa. 49:12) to where the House of Israel had migrated to. Herbert Armstrong relates these details about how the Throne of David was transplanted to the British Isles:

The real ancient history of Ireland is very extensive, though colored with some legend. But with the facts of biblical history and prophecy in mind, one can easily sift out the legend from the true history in studying ancient Irish annals. Throwing out that which is obviously legendary, we glean from various histories of Ireland the following: Long prior to 700 B.C. a strong colony called "Tuatha de Danaan" (tribe of Dan) arrived in ships, drove out other tribes, and settled there. Later, in the days of David, a colony of the line of Zarah arrived in Ireland from the Near East.

Then, in 569 B.C. (date of Jeremiah's transplanting), an elderly, white-haired patriarch, sometimes referred to as a "saint," came to Ireland. With him was the princess daughter of an eastern king and a companion called "Simon Brach," spelled in different histories as Breck, Berech, Brach, or Berach. The princess had a Hebrew name Tephi -- a pet name -- her full name being Tea-Tephi…

This royal party included the son of the king of Ireland who had been in Jerusalem at the time of the siege. There he had become acquainted with Tea-Tephi. He married her shortly after 585 -- when the city fell. Their young son, now about 12 years of age, accompanied them to Ireland. Besides the royal family, Jeremiah brought with them some remarkable things, including a harp, an ark, and a wonderful stone called "lia-fail," or "stone of destiny"… many kings in the history of Ireland, Scotland, and England have been coronated sitting over this stone -- including the present queen. The stone rests today in Westminster Abbey in London, and the coronation chair is built over and around it. A sign beside it labels it "Jacob's pillar-stone" (Gen. 28:18). [The stone of Scone was taken from Scotland to Westminster in 1296 by Edward I (the king of Edward during the time setting of the 1995 movie Braveheart) and was only in the last few years returned to Scotland.]

The royal husband of the Hebrew princess Tea was given the title Herremon upon ascending the throne of his father. This Herremon has usually been confused uch earlier Gede the Herremon in David's day -- who married his uncle Ith's daughter Tea. The son of this later king Herremon and Hebrew princess continued on the throne of Ireland and this same dynasty continued unbroken through all the kings of Ireland; was overturned and transplanted again in Scotland; again overturned and moved to London, England, where this same dynasty continues today in the reign of Queen Elizabeth II.

Prince Michael of Albany, potential heir to the throne of Scotland in the event of Scottish independence, states in his book “The Forgotten Monarchy of Scotland” that the kings of Scotland are descendants from the line of the House of Judah.

“Scotland's royal heritage is the oldest in Europe, and it can be traced back well into the BC era. The legacy of the Scots kings was hewn on the Stone of Destiny, the venerated relic of the Beth-el Covenant (Genesis 28:18-22) …

“… the Royal House of Dalriada, through which all Kings of Scots traced their succession from the biblical Kings of Judah, from the Princes of Greater Scythia …many regarded the Stewarts as their Biblical kings. Prior to becoming High Stewards of Scotland, the Stewarts' maternal forebears were Seneschals in Brittany, and they were of the same ancestral stock as the earlier Merovingian Kings of the Franks, in descent from the ancient Royal House of Judah.” (p. 12, 70, 198-99).

When Christ returns He shall take over the throne of David that God has continued to preserve since the days of His promise David (Luke 1:32, Gen. 49:10).

Why have Britain and America become so prosperous
and successful in these last days?

The unprecedented rise of the English-speaking peoples of America and Britain to their dominant positions of power and influence over the modern world is an amazing story. Why has history been so benevolent and economically generous to Britain and the United States? Why have they been blessed so favourably over the nations that preceded them in history? Surprising as it may sound, both were destined according to Bible prophecy to become superpowers.

The descendants of Jacob's son, Joseph, were offered incredible birthright promises of national wealth and prosperity. These blessings were originally made by God to Abraham and passed on to Isaac, Jacob and then onto his son Joseph. The story of the blessings of Abraham or the birthright promises is yet another fascinating part of the story of the nation of Israel.

When God called Abraham He promised to multiply his descendants and make a great and powerful nation from them. We read of this in Genesis 12:1-3:

“Now the Lord had said to Abram [Abraham]: 'Get out of your country, from your family and from your father's house, to a land that I will show you. I will make you a great nation; I will bless you and make your name great; and you shall be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you, and I will curse him who curses you; and in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed.”

This promise was expanded in Genesis 17:5-6. Not only would a great nation come from Abraham but many nations. In Genesis 28:14 God said to Abraham:

“Also your descendants shall be as the dust of the earth; you shall spread abroad to the west and the east, to the north and the south; and in you and in your seed all the families of the earth shall be blessed.”

There are two aspects to these blessings which have become known as the birthright blessing or blessings of Abraham. There are the national physical blessings of great prosperity and then there is the great spiritual blessing that God promised to him.

When God told Abraham “in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed” (Gen. 28:14), this promise was dual. God also had in mind the promise that Jesus Christ would be born from His descendants and that His death would make it possible to save mankind from the penalty of their sins (Gal. 3:16).

The national, physical blessings were the other part of the birthright promise to Abraham. Now why did God make these promises to Abraham's descendants? God wanted Israel was to be a model nation so that other nations would see the benefits of living by God's way so they might want to come under His rule and live by His way. With that in mind, what was the purpose for offering such prosperity to Abraham's descendants?

“God's grand purpose - anciently, today and tomorrow - for Abraham's descendants has never varied. He selected them to be a blessing to 'all the families of the earth' (Genesis 12:3). To make this possible He promised them every material advantage they would ever need” (The United States and Britain in Bible Prophecy, p.34).

These material blessings would make it possible for them to help and benefit many other nations all around the world.

Abraham and his wife Sarah were quite old when God promised them a son. He was 75 when he left for the land of Canaan. God had promised them a son but God did not appear again for many years and so they took matters into their own hands.

As per an ancient custom when wives were barren, Sarah asked Abraham to beget a son for them with Sarah's servant girl, Hagar. She became pregnant and bore him a son named Ishmael. Ishmael became the father of the people who we call the Arabs (Gen. 17:20).

God told Abraham that the birthright promises would not go to Ishmael but instead would be passed on through a son that would come from Abraham's wife, Sarah (Gen. 17:15-21). What would have happened if Sarah and Abraham had simply waited for God to provide the solution and not taken matters into their own hands? Perhaps generations of strife could have been avoided. The geopolitical scene in the Middle East today might be very different, with the ever-present threat of war much diminished.

God promised that Ishmael would not go without any blessing. God promised that from him would come a great nation (Gen. 17:20, 21:18). This promise was fulfilled a few centuries after the fall of the Roman Empire. In the hundred years that followed the death of Mohammed in 632 the Arabs, with their new religion of Islam conquered all of North Africa, Spain, the Middle East, Arabia, Persia, Armenia, Afghanistan and a third of India - an empire greater in size than that of the Roman Empire.

If Ishmael becoming a great nation meant an empire larger than the Roman Empire then how much greater are the birthright promises that God promised would come through Isaac's descendants?

Given that Sarah was already an old woman well beyond her childbearing years the birth of Isaac was truly a miracle from God. Isaac later had two sons, Esau and Jacob. As the oldest, Esau was entitled to the birthright but he did not value it and sold it to his brother Jacob. Esau's descendants in time became the Turks and the Palestinians.

These birthright promises were passed down through Isaac and Jacob. All of Jacob's 12 sons would share in the blessings promised to Abraham but the double portion of this birthright was passed onto Joseph sons, Ephraim and Manasseh. In Genesis 35:11 God said to Jacob:

“I am God Almighty. Be fruitful and multiply; A NATION AND A COMPANY [OR COMMONWEALTH] OF NATIONS shall proceed from you, and kings shall come from your body.”

This part of the birthright promise was passed onto Joseph's sons, Ephraim and Manasseh in Genesis 48:19:

“He (Manasseh) also shall become a people, and he also shall be great; but truly his younger brother (Ephraim) shall be greater than he, and his descendants shall become a multitude of nations.”

In Genesis 49 Jacob gave prophecies about what the descendants of each of his 12 sons would be like in the end-time before Christ's return. About Joseph he said:

"Joseph is like a grapevine that produces much fruit, a healthy vine watered by a spring, whose branches grow over the wall. Archers attack him violently and shoot at him angrily, but he aims his bow well. His arms are made strong. He gets his power from the Mighty God of Jacob and his strength from the Shepherd, the Rock of Israel. Your father's God helps you. God Almighty blesses you. He blesses you with rain from above, with water from springs below, with many babies born to your wives, and many young ones born to your animals. The blessings of your father are greater than the blessings of the oldest mountains, greater than the good things of the long-lasting hills. May these blessings rest on the head of Joseph..." (Genesis 49:22-26, New Century Version).

“This prophetic passage tells us that Joseph's descendants 'in the last days' will live in a productive, well-watered and fruitful land. They will be a people who have greatly expanded their territory and influence - politically, militarily, economically and culturally - a people 'whose branches grow over the wall,' or beyond their natural borders. They will be a people that, on occasion, will be attacked by other nations but will generally be victorious. Their triumphs will sometimes seem 'miraculous' or 'providential' because the Almighty God is their helper and source of blessings. They will be a people who live in an unusually favourable climate that easily supports their steadily expanding population. They will enjoy the blessing of good crops, vast herds of livestock and extensive natural resources such as fine stands of timber and valuable minerals mined from their soil” (The United States and Britain in Bible Prophecy, p.10-11).

Of the twelve tribes of Israel, the two half-tribes, Ephraim and Manasseh, who were the sons of Joseph, were to receive the fantastic birthright blessings of God which included promises of staggering national prosperity. They would receive “the dew of heaven, of the fat places of the earth, and plenty of grain and wine" (Gen. 27:28-29, Deut. 33:13-17).

How Did the British Empire Start?

The prophecies of the birthright promises have come to pass in the British Empire and the United States of America. The Americans, descended from Manasseh became the single great nation and the British, as the descendants of Ephraim, became a company or commonwealth of nations populating countries such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and other countries.

British histori mes Morris in his book “Pax Britannica” says regarding the British Empire:

It was the largest empire in the history of the world, comprising nearly a quarter of the land mass of the earth, and a quarter of the population...In continued to grow until 1933 when its area was 13.9 million square miles and its population 493 million...The Roman Empire in its prime comprised perhaps 120 million people in an area of 2.5 million square miles…

The acquisition of it all had been a jerky process. Absence of mind it never was, but it happened so obscurely that to the ordinary Briton the rise of the Empire must have seemed more like some organic movement than the conscious result of national policies. There seemed no deliberation to it. One thing simply led to another (p21,27,42).

At its height the British Empire was over 5 times the size of the Roman Empire and ruled over 4 times as many people as the Roman Empire. Compared with the Roman Empire's bloody military conquests, British military forces shed very little blood and its empire was primarily established through trade and commerce.

How did it all come about? A number of factors laid the foundation for Britain's greatness. Raymond McNair makes these comments regarding one of those factors:

By the early 1500s, Spain had become the most powerful nation in Europe--enjoying almost total naval supremacy. England, on the other hand, was only an average power. But then came England's victory over the Spanish Armada in 1588. Amazingly, the Armada was defeated - not so much by English might as by stormy weather! Churchill later wrote that "the defeat of the Armada came as a MIRACLE.... One of the medals struck to commemorate the victory bears the inscription 'Afflavit Deus et dissipantur' - 'God blew and they were scattered'" (History of the English-Speaking Peoples, vol. 2).

From that day forward, English sailors confidently believed they could more than hold their own against their Spanish counterparts. It was England's naval confidence on the high seas which gave her the courage to make permanent settlements around the world.

Chief among the world's colonizing nations were the Anglo-Saxon-Celtic peoples from the British Isles. Only Bible prophecy explains why, beginning in the early 1600s, the colonizing instinct became so strong in these peoples. God, remember, had promised Jacob, "Your descendants shall be as the dust of the earth; you shall spread abroad to the west and the east, to the north and the south" (Gen. 28:14). So Jacob's descendants were destined to become the world's foremost colonizers! (America and Britain in Prophecy, p.45).

The defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603) and royal dynastic union of England and Scotland under the religiously tolerant James I (1603-1625) helped to ensure that England would be free from Catholic domination.

Having seen her father, Henry VIII, mistreat his wives, Queen Elizabeth I wanted no man to rule over her and did not want to have children having seen two of her stepmothers die in childbirth so she remained unmarried for the rest of her life and became known as the Virgin Queen. She was very popular monarch who made the Church of England the established church. The Elizabethan age was characterized by an exuberant national spirit that she inspired.

Under Elizabeth's direction, the government began to regulate commerce and industry on a national scale. England grew to be a great maritime power with the exploits of such mariners as Sir Francis Drake…Foreign trade, encouraged by the government, became a great capitalistic enterprise. The Royal Exchange of London was opened in 1566, and the company of merchants that later became the English East India Company was chartered in 1600 (Encarta Encyclopedia 96, article – Elizabeth I).

The Rocky Road to Britain's Great Political Stability

Queen Elizabeth I appointed James VI, king of Scotland, as her heir who was descended from Henry VII by way of both his father and mother. This act helped bring Scotland and England together in union ever since. He became King James I of England and started the Stuart dynasty. He was also the king who commissioned the King James or Authorized Version of the Bible.
It quickly gained the reputation of being the most accurate translation of the Bible ever attempted up to that time.

England had made its share of attempts to dominate a resistant Scotland and also had been troubled by Scotland and France allying together against her. This step towards union and the events of the 17th century would lead to a model of limited monarchy, parliamentary government and religious toleration that would build the kind of political stability that would allow for the development of the British Empire. The Heritage of World Civilizations, Volume II, describes the events of the 17th century this way:

The first of England's foreign monarchs was James VI of Scotland (the son of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots), who in 1603 succeeded the childless Elizabeth as James I of England. This first Stuart king inherited not only the crown but also a significant royal debt, a fiercely divided Church, and a Parliament already restive over the extent of his predecessor's claims to royal authority. Under James, each of these problems worsened.

Royal debts, his own extravagance, and an inflation he could not control made it necessary for James I to be constantly in quest of new revenues. He sought these new funds without parliamentary approval primarily by levying - solely on the authority of ill-defined privileges claimed to be attached to the office of king - new custom duties known as impositions. Parliament resented such independent efforts to raise revenues as an affront to its power, and the result was a long and divisive struggle between the king and Parliament…

In October 1641, when a rebellion erupted in Ireland and Parliament was asked to raise funds for an army to suppress it, Puritan leaders argued that Charles could not be trusted with an army and that Parliament should become the commander-in-chief of English armed forces. Parliamentary conservatives, on the other hand, were appalled by such a bold departure from tradition.

Charles saw the division within Parliament as a chance to regain power. In January 1642, he invaded Parliament with his soldiers. Shocked by the king's action, a majority of the House of Commons passed the Militia Ordinance, a measure that gave Parliament control of the army. The die was now cast. For the next four years (1642-1646), civil war engulfed England. Two factors led finally to Parliament's victory. The first was its alliance with Scotland in 1643. The second was the reorganization of the parliamentary army under Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658), a middle-aged country squire of iron discipline and strong Independent religious sentiment…

Charles tried in subsequent years to regain power over Parliament, but it was not to be. On January 30, 1649, after trial by a special court, Parliament executed the king as a public criminal and thereafter abolished the monarchy, the House of Lords, and the Anglican Church.

From 1649 to 1660, England was officially a Puritan republic. During this period, Cromwell's army conquered Ireland and Scotland, creating the single political entity of Great Britain. Cromwell, however, was a military man and no politician. When in 1653 the House of Commons entertained a motion to disband the expensive army of fifty thousand men, Cromwell responded by marching in and disbanding Parliament. He ruled thereafter as Lord Protector.

But his military dictatorship proved no more effective than Charles's role had been and became just as harsh and hated. Cromwell's great army and foreign adventures inflated his budget to three times that of Charles. Trade and commerce suffered throughout England, as near chaos reigned in many places. Puritan prohibitions of such pastimes as theatergoing, dancing, and drunkenness were widely resented. Cromwell's treatment of Anglicans came to be just as intolerant as Charles's treatment of Puritans had been. In the name of religious liberty, political liberty had been lost. By the time of Cromwell's death in 1658, a majority of the English were ready to end the Puritan experiment and return to the traditional institutions of government.

The Stuart monarchy was restored in 1660 when Charles II (1660-1685), son of Charles I, returned to England amid great rejoicing. A man of considerable charm and political skills Charles set a refreshing new tone after eleven years of somber Puritanism. His restoration returned England to the status quo of 1642 with a hereditary monarch once again on the throne and the Anglican Church supreme in religion (p.627-631).

Most nations in Europe have had little political stability over the last few hundred years. Most of them have been either absolute monarchies or republics which have been overturned time and again. England's brief period of being a republic under Oliver Cromwell had been a disaster and no better than the dictator-like absolute monarchies in Europe at the time. The English never wanted to be a republic again. The English have always desire to be a monarchy ever since. In the years to come with the Bill of Rights there would come a very stable balance between a limited monarchy and parliament. This kind of political stability would allow for the development of the British Empire and be a great blessing to the colonies that Britain ruled.

The tension between Catholics and Protestants in Britain did not end though with the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II. Charles II's brother, James II became a devout Catholic and after he succeeded his brother as king he appointed Catholics to high positions in his court and the army and well as persecuted his Anglican opponents. The English had hoped that he would die without a male heir with the throne reverting back to his eldest daughter, Mary, who was a Protestant, but when James' second wife gave birth to a male Catholic heir, members of Parliament and the Anglican Church joined forces to have a Protestant heir put on the throne.

Mary was married to William III of Orange in the Netherlands. Whig and Tory nobles invited William of Orange to invade England and restore the traditional liberties of Parliament and the Anglican Church. His army arrived in November 1688 and was received without opposition. Facing sure defeat from the surprise advance of ' army across the English Channel, James II fled to France. This overthrow of James II became known as the Glorious or Bloodless Revolution. William and Mary were declared the new joint monarchs of England soon after. They recognized a Bill of Rights that limited the powers of the monarchy and would rule by consent of parliament and be subject to law.

William was followed on the throne in 1702 by Queen Anne, the second daughter of James II. Up to her reign England and Scotland still had separate parliaments and were still separate countries ruled by the same monarch as a dynastic union. On May 1, 1707 the Act of Union united the two countries under one parliament to create “The United Kingdom of Great Britain”.

The Union Jack flag was born combining the red cross on white background of England's cross of St. George with St. Andrew's white diagonal cross on a blue background, the flag of Scotland. The Welsh flag would later be combined to it to produce the current flag of the United Kingdom.

The United Kingdom is also the term most historians use for ancient Israel in the time of Saul, David and Solomon before the division after Solomon's death. It is also interesting to note that most of the flags of nations that are descended from Israel have two or three of the tri-colours - red, white and blue.

Starting just before the death of William III and continuing for all of Anne's reign was the Spanish War of Succession which resulted in the acquisition of vital territories from France and Spain and the vitally important strategic sea gate of Gibraltar at the entrance of the Mediterranean Sea.

God's promise to Abraham included another provision: "... Your descendants shall possess the gate of their enemies" (Genesis 22:17). In this context gate means a strategic passageway controlling commerce or military access for a region…[The acquisition of Gibraltar came] as a result of the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714).

The Spanish king, Charles II (1661-1700), had no children. The absence of an heir led to a controversy over succession to the Spanish throne. For a time it appeared the matter could be peaceably resolved. However, when Charles designated Philippe d'Anjou, the grandson of French King Louis XIV, as his successor, he destabilized the European balance of power.

Charles' decision confirmed the worst fears of fellow European statesmen concerning French intentions. At Versailles the Spanish ambassador, kneeling before the new king - now Philip V of Spain - was heard to murmur, "Il n'y pas de Pyrenees" - there are no more Pyrenees. He implied that the king's ascension amounted to the union of France and Spain. But England's growing dominance prevented this from coming to pass.

In 1701 England, at war with France, was determined to restore a favorable balance of power in Europe. England succeeded, and the French bid to dominate the Continent failed. In fact, England emerged from the conflict with the largest European navy and her status as a major power confirmed.

As a result of the war England acquired Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, the Hudson Bay territory, Minorca and, most important, Gibraltar, an indispensable international sea gate. Her possession of Gibraltar meant that she controlled the entry and exit to the Mediterranean Sea. These acquisitions were part of the terms of settlement of the Peace of Utrecht, April 11, 1713 (The United States and Britain in Bible Prophecy, p.40).

The issue of royal succession in Britain continued to be a matter of great concern at this time. Not wanting to have a Catholic monarch rule the nation Parliament passed the Act of Succession in 1701 which would ensure that only a Protestant could inherit the crown and barred from royal succession any member of the Royal Family who married a Catholic. The nearest heir was Anne's half-brother James Edward Stuart, who's birth had been the trigger for the overthrow of James II. The next closest Protestant heir was the Elector of Hanover, a state in western Germany. He became known as George I upon taking the throne in 1714. He was not exactly a popular king. He was a fat, dull German who showed little interest in Great Britain and spoke no English.

George II was succeeded by his son, George II, in 1727 who was, like his father, was also regarded as a foreign ruler. During his reign the great Jacobite rebellion occurred, the last armed conflict to be fought on land in Britain and the last dynastic struggle in British history. The Jacobites (from the Latin for James 'Jacobus') supported James Edward Stuart or James III to his followers. Though Catholic, he was Scottish and was favoured by the Highlanders of Scotland to George II who was a foreign ruler from Hanover.

The son of James Edward Stuart (“The Old Pretender”) was Charles Edward Stuart who was known popularly as Bonnie Prince Charles (“The Young Pretender”). The Highlanders led by Bonnie Prince Charles invaded England in 1745 and got as far south as Derby. The English showed no support for the Stuarts over George II. George II's British army, reinforced by forces returning from Europe, drove the Jacobites back to Scotland. In a thoroughly one-sided battle they killed all the Jacobites and devastated the Highlands to teach all concerned to revolt no more.

Prince Michael of Albany today is a descendant of this Stuart family and would be the heir of the Scottish throne if Scotland were to achieve independence in the future. The end of Elizabeth I's reign saw the dynastic union of Scotland and England putting an end to many of the problems of separation between the two. With the current wave of Scottish nationalism, the reign of Elizabeth II, may see the break-up of Scotland and England.

Britain starts developing colonies in North America

Between the reigns of James I and George II the English established a number of colonies in North America. As well as economic reasons, the promise of religious freedom attracted many to America at a time in England when Catholics and Protestants still vied for power. The Heritage of World Civilizations, Volume II, makes these comments on the establishment of English colonies in America during this time:

Beginning with the first successful settlement in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607 and followed in 1620 with the landing of the Pilgrims and in 1630 with the founding of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and ending with the establishment of Georgia in 1733, the eastern seaboard of the United States became populated by a series of English colonies. Other nations, including the Dutch and Swedes had founded settlements, but all of them were eventually taken over during the seventeenth century by the English.

A wide variety of reasons led to the founding of the English colonies. Settlement for enrichment from farming and trade accounted for a number of the settlements, such as Virginia and New Amsterdam (after 1664, New York). Others, such as the Carolinas, were developed by favorites of the English king who were given vast land tracts. James Oglethorpe founded Georgia as a place where English debtors might settle. But the pursuit of religious liberty constituted the major driving force of the Pilgrim and Puritan founders of Massachusetts, the Baptist Roger in Rhode Island, the Quaker William Penn in Pennsylvania, and the Roman Catholic, Lord Baltimore, in Maryland. With the exception of Maryland, Protestantism characterized the religious life of these colonies. The Church of England dominated the southern colonies…

By the early eighteenth century, the British crown governe of the colonies directly. That is, the monarch appointed the Royal Governors, who in turn exercised extensive authority in the colonies. Each colony also had an elected legislative assembly and an upper house or Council appointed by the monarch or the governor. The colonial assemblies had to approve taxes. The actual apparatus of colonial government was quite small. Most of the best appointments came through the Crown. The election of the colonial assemblies, however, encouraged a free press and a lively political life reminiscent of that of England, The colonists commanded their own militias. During the early eighteenth century, the imperial connection was a relatively mild burden for the American colonists. The white colonists were prosperous, largely self governing, and politically freer than perhaps any other people of the time.

The largest economic activity throughout the English-speaking colonies was agriculture. In New England through the middle Atlantic states, mostly small farms predominated; from Virginia southward, it was the plantation economy, dependent on slavery. During the early eighteenth century, the chief products raised on these plantations were tobacco, indigo, rice, and sugar...The principal port cities along the seaboard - Boston, Newport, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Charleston - resembled small provincial English cities. They were primarily trading centers through which goods moved back and forth between the colonies and England and the West Indies.

Until the 1760's the political values of the Americans very much resembled those of their English counterparts. The colonials were thoroughly familiar with events in England. They sent many of their children to England to be educated. They were monarchists but, like their English counterparts, suspicious of monarchical power. The prosperity of the colonies might eventually have led them to a separation from England, but in 1750 few people thought that would occur during the eighteenth century (p.712-713).

The American Indian tribes who inhabited Canada and the United States were only given by God, short-term leases to inhabit the vast North American continent until the Anglo-Saxon-Celtic sons of Joseph came, much like the ancient Canaanite tribes were given temporary possession of the Promised Land until the Israelites came out during the Exodus. The Frenchman Alex de Tocqueville wrote the following in his Democracy in America:

"The Indians [of North America] occupied but did not possess the land. It is by agriculture that man wins the soil, and the first inhabitants of North America lived by hunting... Providence [God] when it placed them [the Indians] amid the riches of the New World, seems to have granted them a short lease only; they were there, in some sense, only waiting. Those coasts so well suited for trade and industry, those deep rivers, that inexhaustible valley of the Mississippi - in short, the whole continent - seemed the yet empty cradle of a GREAT NATION...

When the Creator handed the earth over to men, it was young and inexhaustible, but they were weak and ignorant; and by the time that they had learned to take advantage of the treasures it contained, they already covered its face, and soon they were having to fight for the right to an asylum where they could rest in freedom. It was then [1492] that North America was discovered as if God had held it in reserve [for Israel's descendants] and it had only just arisen above the waters of the flood"(p.24, 258).

French explorers had claimed all the land along the St Lawrence River and Great Lakes in eastern Canada for France as well as all of the Mississippi Basin and land west of the British colonies along the Atlantic seaboard. The British also owned the northern half of Canada around Hudson Bay and west of the Great Lakes in Canada.

The British and French fought for control of North America and the wealth of trade it brought to their countries and the French and Indian War (1754-1763) was a major turning point in the struggle. The French and Indian War was the North American part of a worldwide series of conflict (the first real world war) known as the Seven Years War (1756-1763). In Europe it involved most of the major powers of Europe, in particular Prussia, Great Britain, and Hanover on one side and Austria, Saxony, France, Russia, Sweden, and Spain on the other. In India the British fought the French with the British being the victors and then going on to take control of all India in the years that followed.

The decisive battle for the French and Indian War was the British capture of the "impregnable" city of Quebec where the fighting was centered on the aptly named Plains of Abraham. The British scaled the nearby steep cliffs under the cover of darkness, hauling guns up by ropes and surprised the French on the high plateau where the French fort was.

After their defeat the French, at the signing of the first Treaty of Paris in 1763, surrended all the French territory in eastern Canada plus all the American territory they owned east of the Mississippi River (with the exception of New Orleans). The British between 1763 and 1776 controlled all of Canada and all of America east of the Mississippi, including Florida which Spain surrended at the signing of the first Treaty of Paris in 1763.

The architect of victory was William Pitt the Elder (1708-1778). Although Pitt had previously criticized British involvement with the continent, once named secretary of state in charge of the war in 1757 he reversed himself and pumped huge financial subsidies to Frederick the Great. But North America was Pitt's real concern. Put simply, he wanted all of North America east of the Mississippi for Great Britain, and that was exactly what he won as he directed unprecedented resources into the overseas colonial conflict. The French government was unwilling and unable to direct similar resources against the English in America. In September 1759, at the Plains of Abraham overlooking the valley of the Saint Lawrence River at Quebec City, the British army under General James Wolfe defeated the French under Lieutenant General Louis Joseph Montcalm. The French empire in Canada was coming to an end.

Pitt's colonial vision, however, extended beyond the Saint Lawrence valley and the Great Lakes Basin. The major islands of the French West Indies fell to the British fleets. On the Indian subcontinent, the British forces under the command of Robert Clive defeated the French in 1757 at the battle of Plassey. This victory opened the way for the eventual conquest of Bengal and later of all India by the British East India Company. Never had any European power experienced such complete worldwide military victory (The Heritage of World Civilizations, Volume II, p.710-711).

The Encarta 96 Encyclopedia states that:

Pitt attacked the French Empire boldly, giving commands to able and ambitious young officers. In a series of remarkable victories the British conquered Canada, the area between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River, the French West Indies, and the French trading posts in West Africa. The British East India Company destroyed French power in India (Article – Pitt, William, 1st
Earl of Chatham).

Britain establishes more colonies around the world

Not long after the Seven Years War, Captain James Cook, who was navigator on General Wolfe's ship during the capture of Quebec, made his famous voyages of discovery from 1769 to 1778. On his first voyage he visited Tahiti, the Cook Islands, Tonga, then circumnavigated the islands of New Zealand and claimed it for Britain. After New Zealand he sailed up the fertile east coast of Australia in 1770 claiming the east half of the continent for Britain and calling it New South Wales.

On his second voyage he discovered New Caledonia and chartered the New Hebrides (Vanuatu) and Easter Island. On his third and last voyage he sailed up the west coast of Canada and Alaska and discovered the Hawaiian Islands, which he named the Sandwich Islands in honour of the Earl of Sandwich (who invented the snack of something between two slices of bread). Sadly Captain Cook lost his life at the hands of the Hawaiian natives when he returned there in 1779.

A convict colony would be established in Australia at Sydney cove in 1788 with the arrival of the First fleet which would later give way to free settlement and exploration of the Australian continent. Many settlers would come from the British Isles (primarily of English and Irish descent) and forge a new nation, rich in the production of wool, wheat and gold, that would later achieve independence through federation in 1901.

In Genesis 28:14 God said to Abraham:

“Also your descendants shall be as the dust of the earth; you shall spread abroad to the west and the east, to the north and the south; and in you and in your seed all the families of the earth shall be blessed.”

This prophecy even predicts the very geographical order in which Britain would establish her colonies around the world setting up her empire “upon which the sun never set”. They spread and settled to the west (America in 1607 and the West Indies), to the east (India in 1757), to the north (Canada in 1759) and to the south (Australia in 1788, New Zealand, South Africa and the South Pacific).

Britain's overseas trade boomed due to the growing demand for a wide range of goods such as timber, furs, tobacco, rice and fish (all from North America), sugar (from the West Indies), tea, cotton and silk (from India, Ceylon and Hong Kong) coffee and cocoa (from Java, Africa and the Americas).

The United States of America is born

After the stunning victories of the British that allowed them to take control of most of North America they would soon suffer their biggest setback as they built up the British Empire when they lost their American colonies. The American War of Independence (1775-1783) was, in a sense, round two of the English Civil War and was triggered off by the issue of taxation without parliamentary consent and representation from the colonies.

The Seven Years and French and Indian Wars left Great Britain with a considerable debt and expensive responsibilities to administer newly acquired territory in North America. As a result Britain felt the need to increase the share of taxes the colonists paid to help share the empire's defence costs. The matter of whether Britain or the local colonial assemblies had the right to collect taxes led to increased hostility and then a war for independence.

Just like the secession of the ten tribes of Israel in Rehoboam's day, this breakaway from Britain by the American colonists was triggered off by the issue of taxation, a similarity that was not lost on John Wesley, founder of the Methodist church. He wrote George III and told him: “For God's sake, remember Rehoboam!”

The American colonials declared themselves independent on July 4, 1776. In October 1781 with the support of the French, who sided with the Americans, George Washington's colonial army was able to defeat the British at Yorktown, Virginia.

The second Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, 1783. In this treaty, Britain officially recognized the United States as a sovereign nation and ceded all of her North American territories south of the Great Lakes to the victorious rebels. Florida was given back to Spain as part of her support for the Americans and then eventually given back to the United States in 1819. With its independence and the all the land east of the Mississippi it could rightly be said that America was assured of becoming the GREAT NATION that God had promised.
In Isaiah 49:20 we read:

The children you will have, after you have lost the others, will say again in your ears, 'The place is too small for me; Give me a place where I may dwell.'

This is a millennial prophecy that will be fulfilled when the modern-day descendants of Israel will return from captivity to Palestine and then colonize other places around the world. This interesting prophecy referring to colonizing after losing some of her children was also fulfilled in type when Britain continued to colonize after losing her American colonies.

Many Americans felt that colonial Canadians would, like they had done 40 years earlier, rise up and desire independence from Britain when they invaded British Canada during the War of 1812. Canadians have always been more loyal to Britain than the Americans and wanted to remain a part of the British empire. They achieved independence in 1930 and are still part of the Commonwealth of Nations. The following quote from Raymond McNair shows why Canada is descended from Ephraim and not Manasseh despite the similarity of its people to America:

This [God's providential help of the Americans in achieving independence from Britain], however, does NOT mean that God favored the Americans (Manassites) over the British (Ephraimites). He was simply working out His purpose. God gave the Americans victory when they fought in their own land - but NOT when they advanced into British Canadian territory:

"From the beginning, America's first campaign of territorial conquest [into Canada] seemed dogged with misfortune. Everything went wrong.... The annexation of Canada was clearly not in God's plan for the United States....It was as if God had a different plan for Canada...a plan separate and distinct from His plan for America" (Peter Marshall and David Manuel, The Light and the Glory, pp. 292, 295-296).

And so He did. God, we now know, had reserved that area for Ephraim! Thus, God divided the descendants of Ephraim and Manasseh politically and began to bless them in their separate courses - yet not so separate, for these sons of Joseph are close brothers. The Declaration of Independence even mentions "the ties of our common kindred"! (America and Britain in Prophecy, p.48).

Twenty years after the fledgling 13 colonies had broken off from the mother country, the new United States was able to, in 1803, buy from France, the fabulous Louisiana Territory for about $15 million. Initially the Americans only wanted to acquire the port city of New Orleans and were dumbfounded when the French offered them the whole Louisiana Territory. Napoleon was eager to sell the territory to fund his expansion wars in Europe.

The young nation of the United States acquired 828 000 square miles of the richest and best farmland in the world right through the middle of America for a paltry 5 cents per acre - the size of 1/4 of the current U.S. nation thereby increasing its size at the time by 140 percent.

Over the next 50 years through treaties and very little warfare at all, the U.S. doubled in size right across to the West Coast to acquire all the territory of the continental United States by 1853. For the unbelievably low price of $7 200 000 or 2 cents an acre the U.S. bought Alaska from Russia in 1867. It is interesting to note that the sale of Alaskan fish, petroleum, minerals and other products nets the U.S. tens of billions of dollars annually. In 1898 America annexed the Hawaiian Islands which became the 50th state of the United States.

Never before in history had any nation received land to remotely compare with those newly-acquired American territories - either in sheer size, richness of soil having such a favourable climate. Abraham Lincoln said in 1863:

"We find ourselves in the peaceful possession of the fairest portion of the earth, as regards fertility of soil, extent of territory, and salubrity of climate... We...find ourselves the legal inheritors of these fundamental blessings. We toiled not in the acquirement or establishment of them."

In 1861 the United States split into two nations primarily over the impact any restrictions made by the northern states on the issue of slavery would have on the southern economy. The new Confederate constitution prohibited the African slave trade but, unlike the North, allowed interstate commerce in slaves. The southern states seceded and formed a new nation called the “Confederated States of America” under the presidency of Jefferson Davis. The new nation would only last four years.

In his inaugural address, Lincoln held that secession was illegal and stated that he intended to maintain federal possessions in the South. On April 12, 1861, when an attempt was made to resupply Fort Sumter, a federal installation in the harbor at Charleston, South Carolina, Southern artillery opened fire. Three days later, Lincoln called for troops to put down the rebellion (Encarta 96 Encyclopedia, Article – Civil War).

The Civil War would last four years between 1861 and 1865. Abraham Lincoln's North army would eventually defeat the South and bring the confederate states back into the federal union of the United States of America. God had promised that Manasseh would become a single great nation, not two. Despite the terrible loss of life and resources America would grow much stronger to become the single greatest nation the world has ever seen just as God had promised their ancestor, Manasseh, over 3 500 years earlier.

The Defeat of Napoleon and French Hegemony
leads to more expansion of the Empire

In 1760 George II was succeeded by his son, George III, who reigned for 60 years up until 1820. Unlike his father and grandfather, George III was thoroughly English and was a popular king. His reign would see Great Britain's worst success with the loss of the American colonies (which ended the first phase of the British empire) as well as the greatest success with the defeat of Napoleon which began the second and greater phase of the British empire.

Through the French support of the Americans in their War of Independence and the sale of the Louisiana Territory, France hoped to create a rival who would weaken England. They elevated one branch of the family of Joseph and then lost to the other branch on both sea and land when the British defeated them in the battles of Trafalgar and Waterloo.

The naval battle of Trafalgar took place in October 1805 at Cape Trafalgar on the south coast of Spain pitting the British fleet of Admiral Horatio Nelson against a combined Spanish-French fleet. The surprise tactics of Nelson led to the British destroying or capturing 20 ships without losing a single ship. The overwhelming British victory destroyed Napoleon's plan to invade England and helped secure the supremacy of British naval forces for the rest of the 1800s.

The Battle of Waterloo was the final defeat of Napoleon. After expanding the French empire over much of Europe he was defeated in 1814 by Britain and an alliance of European powers and was sent into exile on the island of Elba. The next year he escaped from Elba and once again ascended to the throne.

One final great battle was fought between Napoleon's French forces and a combined army of Britain and a number of European powers on the fields of Waterloo in Belgium where Napoleon was finally defeated and sent into exile on the Atlantic island of St Helena until his death in 1821. Britain found herself free from the threats of other European powers like the French and in possession of the necessary political, economic and military power to build an empire that soon extended around the world.

The number 40 is a biblically significant number signifying a period of trial and testing. The critical 40 years between 1775 and 1815 saw the birth of the American nation and her expansion to the Mississippi Basin followed by the defeat of French hegemony that led to Britain's economic and military supremacy and allowed it to greatly expand its empire.

The next great expansionist move of the British Empire was in South Africa. Dutch settlers had settled in the area of the Cape of Good Hope (Cape Town) in 1652. The colonists, mostly farmers and cattle herders, became known as Boers, and soon developed their own distinctive culture and language (Afrikaans). In 1814, toward the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Great Britain purchased the Cape Colony from the Dutch for £6 million. Purchase of the Cape Colony enabled the British control of an important sea gate for ships on their way to India. After 1820 thousands of British colonists arrived in South Africa and settled the Cape Colony. The Boers then moved northwards and established two colonies in the Orange Free State and Transvaal.

In 1798 the British conquered the island of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and the British East India company continued to make territorial gains in Asia and ruled much of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Burma. In 1819 Sir Thomas Raffles founded Singapore and by 1824 Britain acquired much of Malaysia from the Dutch.

In his video documentary series, “A History of Britain”, Simon Schama showed some of the faults of the British as they built their empire, such as the evils of the slave trade to the West Indies and America and the underhanded dealings of the British East India Company as they conquered much of India. In concluding the episode, “The Wrong Empire”, which covered the first half of the British Empire, Schama made the following comment: “The Almighty had led them, by crooked steps to be sure, toward their true destiny as the modern Romans.”

Britain gradually matured morally as it developed its empire. To be the blessing to the world that He wanted them to be God would lead moral conservatives into positions of power with the reign of Queen Victoria and a Protestant religious revival swept through Britain during the time that Britain's empire reached its zenith.

Up to then some two million African slaves were brought to North America on British ships (about 15 000 trips with 150 slaves on average). Sugar plantation farmers in the West Indies became very rich from the harvest reaped by these slaves and the abundant economic rewards this trade produced led to the mother country being very slow to the cruelty of the trade.

While Black African traders initiated this awful tragedy, kidnapping and selling off their own people, the British also bore a heavy responsibility in this matter. In a land where they preached about the liberties of being free from the absolute monarchies in Europe they ironically turned a blind eye to the slave trade for some time. Yet it would be the British in 1833, before the Americans would 30 years after, who would begin to outlaw this awful trade and proclaim liberty to any slaves in the Empire. British ships policed the African coast to prevent the trade continuing.

In India many of the abuses prevalent during the rule of the East India Company were eradicated after the British government assumed control of India in 1858. Britain's conscience was slow to kick in but by the ascension of Queen Victoria it would no longer be “the wrong empire” to quote Simon Schama but be an empire of liberty and trade.

The Reign of Queen Victoria and Pax Britannica

George III was succeeded by his brother, William IV (1830-1837), who, in turn was succeeded by his niece, Queen Victoria. Queen Victoria was a very popular queen and became the longest reigning monarch, ruling for over 64 years until 1901. Her reign became known as the Victorian era and the second phase of the British Empire grew tremendously during her glorious reign. The industrial revolution and the invention of the railway propelled Britain ahead to a new level of prosperity.

Several prime ministers served during the latter part of Victoria's reign, but only the Conservative party leader Benjamin Disraeli, who held office in 1868 and from 1874 to 1880, gained her confidence. He ingratiated himself with the queen by his cultivated personal approach and his gift for flattery. He also allowed her a free hand in the awarding of church, military, and some political appointments. She fully endorsed his policy of strengthening and extending the British Empire, and in 1876 Disraeli secured for her the title of empress of India…

Victoria's popularity among all classes in British society reached its height in the last two decades of her reign. Her golden jubilee in 1887 and her diamond jubilee in 1897 were occasions for great public rejoicing…

With her personal example of honesty, patriotism, and devotion to family life, Victoria became a living symbol of the solidity of the British Empire. The many years of her reign, often referred to as the Victorian age, witnessed the rise of the middle class and were marked by a deeply conservative morality and intense nationalism (Encarta 96 Encyclopedia, Article – Queen Victoria).

The 19th century is known as Pax Britannica – the British Peace. During this time they developed technology and industry well ahead of the rest of the world. The Crystal Palace was built to showcase the various machinery and wares of Britain and people came from around the world to admire British. The British built dams, roads, immense railways, postal services and communications all over the empire. In the UCG booklet “The United States and Britain in Bible Prophecy” we read:

The British and American people have been the instruments used to spread God's Word to most of the known world. Although we often take the Bible for granted, and many U.S. and British homes now have several copies, it wasn't always this way.

For many centuries virtually the only copies available outside of the original languages were in Latin, with the Roman Catholic Church tightly controlling the common people's access to the Scriptures. "Yet it was in England, so long deprived of the living Word, where the battle was fought and won for the right of the common man to have his Bible in his own language" (Neil Lightfoot, How We Got the Bible, 1986, p. 76)…

The policies and resources of America and Britain have both encouraged and enabled the true gospel of the Kingdom of God to be proclaimed around the world in recent years. They have provided the climate of religious freedom, the financial resources and most of the laborers that were needed to disseminate biblical knowledge to all nations…

The builders of the British Empire aspired to weld together a peaceful, productive domain ruling over a quarter of the world's population. A great achievement of British administrators was the establishment and extension of law and order in Britain's colonial and imperial territories around the globe. This alone brought untold blessings to the people of these territories.

This Pax Britannica bequeathed peaceful conditions to many regions formerly plagued by war and long-term ethnic hostilities. The British presence also stimulated territorial economic development and introduced many areas to Western technological advances. British missionaries became the bearers of biblical literature and knowledge to people from one end of the globe to the other. Both physical and spiritual blessings were freely distributed around the globe…

Britain also experienced a population explosion beginning during that same period. Historian Colin Cross notes that "one of the unexplained mysteries of social history is the explosion in the size of the population of Great Britain between 1750 and 1850. For generations the British population had been static, or rising only very slightly. Then in the space of a century it almost trebled-from 7.7 million in 1750 to 20.7 million in 1850...Britain was a dynamic country and one of the marks of its dynamism was the population explosion" (Fall of the British Empire, 1969, p. 155). This window of time seems to be directly related to Joseph's exiled descendants receiving the promised birthright blessings (p.35-37).

Despite their faults the British did use their talents to be a blessing to the nations of the world (Gen.12:3) and help build the civil infrastructure and raise the standard of living amongst the Gentile nations who came under the Empire. Craig White in his paper “Israel – Descendants of Arphaxad” offers these parallels between the British Empire and the Kingdom of God:

1. Extension of law:

- For example in India wives of deceased husbands were placed on the funeral pile to be burned alive – the British abolished this.
- Thuggery & killing of travellers was pursued and outlawed.
- Slavery outlawed in 1833 (Africans sold their own people to white traders) (cp Is 61:1-2)
- Rod was used to beat criminals in India and Kenya, which was, after all, a lot more lenient than local custom. See Rev 2:27; 19:15 where Christ is said to use a rod on the non-Israelitish peoples which contrasts with the German cruelty when they dominated Tanzania etc and the rod of Is 10:5.
- Canadian Mounties ensured that law was delivered to remote, wild regions of Canada.

2. Prosperity because of peace:

- The 19th century is known as Pax Britannica – the British Peace. Similarly Christ is called the Prince of Peace (Is 9:6) because His reign will bring world peace.
- During this time they developed technology and industry well ahead of the rest of the world. Abraham Darby brought industrial iron production to Britain.
- Crystal Palace was built to showcase the various machinery and wares of Britain – people came from around the world to admire British genius(similarly nations will flow to Jerusalem – Is 2:2-4).
- In the millennium Israel will enjoy overwhelming prosperity (Amos 9:13).
- British built dams (eg Aswan), road, immense railways, postal services, communications.
- Kipling wrote about the British taking the blessings to other peoples and to uplift them – with a civilising mission.
- British brought advances in medical science to help the diseased etc (typological of the divine healings prophesied in Is 35:5-6).

3. Extension of Biblical teachings:

- The translation of the Bible in dozens of languages.
- Distribution of Bibles.
- Conservative family values, morals and ethics taught ('Biblical principles').
- Queen Victoria gave Bibles to visiting representatives of tribes and peoples.
- She said 'the Bible is the secret to British greatness'.
- Typological of Is 11:9.

The expansion of the British Empire continued to go from strength to strength under the reign of Queen Victoria. Regarding the colonization of New Zealand the Encarta 96 Encyclopedia says:

The Dutch navigator Abel Janszoon Tasman was the first European to reach New Zealand in 1642. The British explorer Captain James Cook visited the islands in 1769 and took possession of them for Great Britain, but nearly 75 years elapsed before the British government recognized his claim…

By the terms of the Treaty of Waitangi, signed in 1840 by a British representative and 50 Maori chieftains, Great Britain formally proclaimed sovereignty over the islands and agreed to respect the landownership rights of the Maori, who placed themselves under the protection of the British government. At the same time New Zealand was made a dependency of New South Wales, Australia. In 1841 it was constituted a separate crown colony, with Auckland as its first capital (Article – New Zealand).

It would predominantly become populated with English and Scottish settlers with the Scots mostly settling on the South Island. New Zealand would later become independent in 1907.

The British continued to make advances into Boer territory in South Africa spurred on by the discovery of diamonds in 1867 in Griqualand West and the discovery of vast gold deposits in the southern Transvaal in 1886 and eventually controlled all the territory of South Africa (Independence granted in 1910).

South Africa has been the greatest source of gold and diamonds anywhere in the world, including the world's largest diamond, the Cullinan diamond. It was over 3000 carats in size and was presented to Edward VII in 1907. The largest stone cut from it, The First Star of Africa, a dazzling large diamond the size of a man's fist, was set into the Sovereign's Sceptre amongst the fabulous Crown Jewels of England in the Tower of London.

After many requests by King Moshesh, Great Britain agreed to make Lesotho (Basutoland), a small country surrounded by South Africa, a protectorate in 1868. It was one of many requests by countries to request the rule and protection of Britain against the dangers faced by other imperial countries and other bordering African countries.

Some other African protectorates of the British Empire included Egypt (1882), Botswana (Bechuanaland 1885), Kenya (1886), British Somalia (1887) Zambia (Northern Rhodesia 1889), Malawi (Nyasaland 1891) and Uganda (1896). The British also controlled Ghana (1821), Nigeria (1886), Sudan (1877), and through the efforts of Cecil Rhodes also controlled Zimbabwe (Rhodesia).

Rhodes monopolized the diamond production of Kimberley. In the same year he wrested exclusive mining rights from Lobengula, the ruler of Matabeleland (now in Zimbabwe). In 1889 Rhodes was granted a charter to incorporate the British South Africa Company. Until 1923 it controlled what are now Zimbabwe and Zambia; the area was named Rhodesia in 1894 in honor of Rhodes (Encarta 96 Encyclopedia, Article – Cecil Rhodes).

With its control over Egypt from 1882 to 1956 the British had control of, not only Gibraltar, but also the other great sea gate at the other end of the Mediterranean, the Suez Canal. This 100-mile man-made canal completed in 1869 between the Mediterranean and Red seas has been one of the world's most heavily used shipping lanes, eliminating the long and arduous trip around the southern tip of Africa.

During his Egyptian campaign in 1799 Napoleon prepared a dispatch proclaiming a Jewish homeland in Palestine. He was not able to go on and take control of Palestine after his defeat in Egypt. It continued to remain under the control of the Ottoman Turks until 1917 when British Field Marshall Allenby captured Jerusalem during World War I. The British later went on to control all of Palestine (1917), Jordan (1918) and Iraq (1920).

Speaking before students at the Glasgow University in 1900, British Prime Minister, Lord Roseberry made the following comments about the British Empire:

"Human, and not wholly human, for the most heedless and the most cynical must see the finger of the divine ...reaching with a ripple of a restless tide over tracts, and islands and continents, until our little Britain woke up to find herself the foster-mother of nations and the source of united empires. Do we not hail in this, less the energy and fortune of a race than the supreme direction of the Almighty?"

Lord Curzon, Britain's Viceroy of India, speaking in Birmingham, England in 1907 said:

"I would describe the the result, not of an accident or a series of accidents, but of an instinct - that ineradicable and divinely implanted impulse, which has sent the Englishman forth into the uttermost parts of the earth, and made him there the parent of new societies and the architect of unpremeditated creations."

The United States of America dominates the 20th Century

While the British dominated the 19th century it would be the American people who would dominate the 20th century. Through mass production and technical progress they became the single greatest nation the world has ever seen. American military, economic, industrial and technical power has reigned supreme over the past century.

Just prior to the 20th century America declared war on Spain in 1898. It called on Spain to grant independence to Cuba as a result of requests for assistance by Cuban nationals who were being very harshly treated by Spain. The brutal treatment of the Cubans by Spanish military forces received wide publicity in the United States motivating the Americans to use their military might to liberate the Cubans and to respond to attacks on American ships in Cuba.

After defeating the Spanish forces in battles in Cuba and the Philippines, Spain surrended and relinquished Cuba and ceded to the United States the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the island of Guam. As a result of the Spanish-American War the United States became a world power to be reckoned with. A few years after the war work commenced by the Americans on the Panama Canal.

[Another] sea gate acquired by Joseph's descendants was the Panama Canal [opened in 1914]…American president Theodore Roosevelt took steps to secure Panama with bold decisiveness but questionable legality. About his presumption Roosevelt remarked, "I took the Isthmus, started the Canal, and then left Congress - not to debate the Canal, but to debate me" (Roger Butterfield, The American Past, 1966, p. 323)…

The United States, after pursuing an isolationist policy for many years, was eventually forced by events beyond her control to also take a larger role in world affairs - becoming the international model for freedom and individual rights. Attacked by Japan in 1941, an ill-prepared United States suddenly found itself at war with the Axis powers. It quickly geared up its industrial might, already harnessed to some extent in the early years of the war to aid Britain.

The United States emerged from World War II as the most powerful nation in the world. But, rather than using its strength to dominate and oppress the weaker nations of a shattered world, America set out to rebuild its defeated enemies-exhibiting a compassion that is indeed rare in the annals of international affairs (The United States and Britain in Bible Prophecy, p.41).

Stephen Collins in his book “The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel…Found!” makes the following comparisons between America and Britain and the Scythians and Parthians of ancient times:

While the British sought to expand its empire, the United States has exhibited an 'isolationist' tendency in its history, and has not sought to rule a large empire. While the British used their armies to conquer and hold territory, America typically withdraws its armies quickly from conquered territory. In World Wars I and II, the Persian Gulf War, etc., America has exhibited no desire to create an empire out of conquered territory, even though it had the power to easily do so.

The above traits of the British and Americans were also exhibited by the Parthians and Scythians. The Parthian Empire begun as a much of the clans of Ephraim, and Parthia was comfortable with ruling an empire of diverse nations, using its armies to conquer and hold territory. The British emulated this Parthian trait in the time of the British Empire, further cementing their identity as modern Ephraim. The ancient Scythians, however, preferred to live in the “wide open spaces" of the Russian steppe and were isolationist (content to "live and let live”). One of the dominant tribes of the Scythians were the Massagetae (i.e. 'Manasseh').

After the Scythians conquered Mesopotamia and virtually the entire Mideast (circa 620 B.C.), they completely withdrew their armies in a few yews, disdaining to rule an empire when they could easily have done so. The Americans have emulated this Scythian trait. At the end of World War II, America could have enforced a “Pax America" on the entire earth! It ruled (or dominated) the Western Hemisphere, its armies occupied Japan, much of Europe and North Africa, most Pacific islands and only America had the atomic bomb. Americans, like the ancient Scythians, disdained having an empire. It quickly withdrew most armies from conquered nations, mothballed much of its fleet and returned its soldiers to civilian life as soon as they could be transported home.

Even as the Parthians and Scythians, were allied fellow kinsmen in the ancient world, the British and the Americans have had a “special relationship" in the modern world. When Parthia needed military help in the ancient world, the Scythians regularly came charging to the rescue. The British and Americans have repeated this Parthian-Scythian tradition. When the British needed military help in World Wars I and II, the Americans came charging to the rescue! These ancient and modern alliances are no accident. Ephraim and Manasseh, are "brother" tribes (with a common culture and language) and their descendants have traditionally acted as “brother nations” in the world…

This British-American, alliance was typically merciful to conquered enemies, exhibiting a characteristic of their forefather Joseph. This attribute of wise and benevolent rule was also common among the Scythians, the Parthians and among the Goths who conquered the Romans. The example of American mercy and magnanimous behavior in restoring the people and economies of its former enemies, Japan and Germany, after World War II is a marvelous example of this trait of the tribe of Joseph. After America and Britain conquered much of Germany in World War II, the Americans worked around the clock to feed Germans in "the Berlin Airlift” necessitated by Russia's grab for power over West Berlin.

The United States of America may be the most generous, magnanimous, and merciful nation in the history of our planet! Besides rebuilding and restoring Japan and much of Europe after World War II, the USA has poured mega-billions of dollars into nations everywhere (usually without repayment or even gratitude) in the form of the Marshall Plan, foreign aid, the Peace Corps, etc. When natural disasters strike anywhere on earth, American agencies (public and private) rush to the scene to offer aid and assistance (even to enemy nations). When American TV sets show suffering and starving people in Ethiopia, Somalia and Rwanda (to name recent examples), it isn't long before American aid rushes to those affected areas. This world would be a grim place if Americans were not such a philanthropic people. Indeed, America is generous to a fault. So many nations which owe so much to American generosity and help are frequently anti-American in their policies. Americans see this, but simply go on giving anyway. They can't help it; its in their genes that date back to Joseph.

In doing so, the United States has fulfilled the birthright promise of Genesis 12:3 that “in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed." Whatever America's faults are (and there are many), America has historically been “a cheerful giver” to friends, enemies and neutral, alike. II Corinthians 9:7 states that God loves a cheerful giver, and Proverbs 10:12 and I Peter 4:8 mention a divine principle that “love covers a multitude of sins.” Perhaps herein lies the reason why God withholds due punishment from America for its various sins. God "covers" (pardons) some of America's sins because of its unusually generous and merciful attitude toward other nations.

Great Britain has also fulfilled this promise, but in a different way. When Ephraimites formed the backbone of the Parthian Empire, they ruled subject nations with wisdom providing an environment of peace and stability. History records that nations fought the Greeks and Romans in order to live under Parthian rule. History repeated itself when the English (modern Ephraim) ruled an empire of many nations, providing an environment of peace and stability. In the wave of nationalism that swept the post-war world, many British colonies were granted an “independence” which proved to be a great curse. Many of these nations had so little capacity to govern themselves that they have been prey of despots ever since.

Besides the above, the birthright promises included wealth and agricultural abundance…Even as Joseph dispensed grain from huge surpluses to hungry nations during the seven lean years in Egypt, so the peoples of Ephraim and Manasseh have fed the world through vast agricultural production in our time (p.387-390).

Decolonization of the British Empire

The two great world wars of the 20th century took a terrible toll on Britain and drained the country economically. British world dominance began to fade fast. By the end of World War II the British found themselves with neither the resources nor the will to preserve their empire and in the wake of World War II a wave of nationalism swept across the developing world. Britain gave India its independence in 1947. The following year also saw another important development in the establishment of the state of Israel in the former British-occupied territory of Palestine which has become a prosperous new homeland for the Jews.

The reign of Elizabeth I saw the beginnings of the British Empire while the reign of Elizabeth II (1952- ) has seen the break-up of the empire with the decolonization that occurred primarily in the 1960's. The British Empire began to dissolve with great speed, being replaced the Commonwealth of Nations, formed initially of the former British colonies that have constitutional monarchies recognizing the British monarch as the head of state and now including those who have since become republics.

During this time the following countries achieved independence – Sudan (1956), Ghana (1957), Egypt (1956), Nigeria (1960), Sierra Leone (1961), Uganda (1962), Kenya (1962), Jamaica (1962), Trinidad and Tobago (1962), Western Samoa (1962), Malaysia (1963), Zambia (1964), Singapore (1965), Gambia (1965), Lesotho (1966), Botswana (1966), Barbados (1966), Guyana (1966), Fiji (1970), Tonga (1970), the Bahamas (1973), Solomon Islands (1978), St Lucia (1979), Zimbabwe (1980), Vanuatu (1980), Antigua (1981). For some of these developing countries achieving independence has turned out to be a curse. As noted above by Stephen Collins “many of these nations had so little capacity to govern themselves that they have been the prey of despots ever since.”

Shortly after World War II the U.S. and British Commonwealth produced 60% of the world's petroleum, 60% of its steel, 95% of its nickel, 66% of its gold, 75% of its cars and well as dominating food and wool exports. They also possessed "the gates of their enemies" (Gen. 22:17) possessing gates such as the Suez and Panama canals and Gibraltar.

From 1960's on this all began to change. Their share of the world market has over halved, Britain has lost most of her possessions and is becoming a second-rate power and now we are seeing an absolutely incredible rise in crime, immorality and violence and skyrocketing national debts which are plaguing the English-speaking nations. The birthright blessings were beginning to be taken away and replaced with the terrible curses for disobedience mentioned in Leviticus 26:14-39 and Deuteronomy 28:14-68.

Where did the Other Tribes Migrate to?

We have covered the history, in particular, of the descendants of the two sons of Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh, from whom the British and American peoples descended. Where did the rest of the tribes of Israel migrate to?

In Genesis 49 there is recorded a long prophecy that describes the state of each of the tribes in the "latter days". More clues are given in a similar prophecy spoken by Moses in Deuteronomy 33.

Jacob's firstborn son to his first wife, Leah, was Reuben. Because he slept with Jacob's concubine, Bilhah (Genesis 35:22), he lost the birthright which was passed onto Joseph, the firstborn son of his second and favourite wife, Rachel. Which nation is descended from Reuben? The clues of Genesis 49 and the facts of history point to France.

In Yair Davidy's book "The Tribes he writes:

"In west Europe the Franks were divided into several groups of whom the main ones are assumed to have been the Ripuarian Franks, the Salian Franks and the Chatti or Hessians. The Ripuarian Franks were assumedly so-called by the Romans since they were first known to them on the banks of the Rhine (in Latin "ripe" means river-bank) The name is also given as Ribauri and this name in Hebrew is another form of REUBEN ... [the] Ripuarian Franks with Alamans also entered Gaul from the east of the Rhine where they had been centred in Westphalia. The name 'PHALIA' wherein the Franks had been sojourning is derived most likely from that of PHALUI, second son of Reuben (p 162-163)".

Jacob foretold that Reuben would be "unstable as water"(Gen. 49:4). This has been the case with the instability in French government since the French revolution, though it has been more stable in recent years. Just as Jacob's son, Reuben, had a weakness for sex, the French have been known for their "avant-garde" approach to sex. Jacob also referred to Reuben as "the excellency of dignity and the excellency of power"(Gen 49:3). In the past, France was called "the queen of culture". This excellency can be seen in many of France's magnificent chateaus and palaces such as the Versailles. During the time of Napoleon, France also excelled in power.

The descendants of Reuben, at a subconscious level, have tried hard to take back the double-portion of the birthright blessings from Joseph. Just before the time that Ephraim and Manasseh would inherit the birthright the French controlled much of eastern Canada and the vast Mississippi Basin (Louisiana Territory). The French and Indian War (1754-1763) was a major turning point in the struggle for control of North America. The decisive battle was the British capture of the "impregnable" city of Quebec where the fighting was centred on the aptly named Plains of Abraham. Britain thereafter acquired the French territory of eastern Canada.

In 1803 Napoleon sold the vast Louisiana Territory (8.28 million acres of the world's richest and most fertile land) to the new nation of the United States in order to fund his war efforts to expand France's empire in Europe. This event is seen by some as a symbolic handing over of the birthright from Reuben to Joseph.

Through the French support of the Americans in their War of Independence and the sale of the Louisiana Territory, France hoped to create a rival who would weaken England. They elevated one branch of the family of Joseph and then lost to the other branch on both sea and land when the British defeated them in the battles of Trafalgar and Waterloo.

After Reuben came Simeon and Levi. These sons were quite cruel and Jacob foretold that they would be scattered by God throughout Israel (Gen. 49:7). According to Yair Davidy, Simeon appears to be represented by Celtic tribes such as the Simeni on the east coast of Britain and the Semoni of Ireland and Wales. Some also are to be found in Scandinavia (The Tribes, p 219-220).

The tribe of Levi, from whom came Moses and Aaron, became the priestly tribe. Being the priestly tribe they had no tribal inheritance. They lived amongst the other tribes. Amongst the Jews of Israel and the United States we find many with names like Levi, Levy and . The Hebrew word for priest is "Kohen". Many with names such as Kohan, Kuhn and Cohen are of Levite descent.

Judah or the Jewish people are quite visible to the world today, due mainly to the fact that they have remained faithful to keeping the sign of God's people, the Sabbath (Exod. 31:16-17). Jacob foretold that his "hand shall be on the neck of your enemies" (Gen. 49:8). The military skill of the Jewish people of the modern state of Israel in resisting the attacks of their Arab neighbours has been quite remarkable. The Jews have always had a reputation for producing great intellects (eg. Einstein) as well as being skilful warriors. The Jews in the state of Israel and the Scottish (many of whom descend from Judah) have been known as great warriors and Scottish inventors have produced a great many inventions per capita than most nations.

In Zephaniah 2:1-2 there appears to be a reference to the return of the Jewish people to the land of Palestine that we have seen in recent decades. Jesus' prophecy of the abomination of desolation (Matt. 24:15) requires an Israelite presence in Palestine in the end time. A significant number of Jews migrated into Europe with the other tribes. The Jutes gave the name of Jutland to the Danish peninsula. Many Jews can also be found in Denmark, Scotland, south England, Northern Ireland as well as the United States.

"Zebulun shall dwell by the haven of the sea. He shall become a haven for ships" (Gen 49:13). This prophecy finds its fulfilment in the nation of Holland or the Netherlands. Rotterdam, at the mouth of the Rhine, is the world's busiest port. In the 17th Century, Holland was one of the great sea and colonial powers of Europe.

Zebulun is also described as obtaining abundance and wealth from the seas and the hidden treasures of the sands (Deut. 33:19). The Dutch are well-known for building dykes and reclaiming land for the use of farming. Much of the Afrikaan population of South Africa are of Dutch descent. South Africa is known for the great wealth obtained from their diamond mines and Holland for its diamond cutting industry.

"The name ZEBULON was recalled in Zabulistan of east Iran (Afghanistan) and in the Sabalingoi which people were originally in southern Jutland and from there moved into Dutch Frisia and other parts of Holland" (The Tribes, p.330).

Dan was described as "a serpent by the way" (Gen 49:17) or a serpent's trail. They had a custom of naming places after their tribal ancestor Dan (Joshua 19:47, Judges 18:11-12). They certainly left their mark on Europe as they migrated across it. We see this in the names of many of Europe's important rivers such as the Don, Dneiper, Dniester, Dardanelles and the Danube.

Keating's History of Ireland traces the Tuatha de Danaan (literally "the tribe of Dan") from Greece to Scandinavia. Both ScanDINavia and SweDEN bear the name of Dan. From there they went to Scotland and later across to Ireland. The name of Dan occurs frequently in Ireland in place names such as Donegal, Danslaugh, Dungarvan, Dundalk, Dungloe, Dunsmore as well as the popular Irish song "Danny Boy".

Dan migrated to Ireland and, along with people descended from Judah, form the bulk of the nation of Denmark (DAN-mark). "Dan shall be a serpent by the way, a viper by the path, that bites the horse's heels, so that its rider shall fall backward" (Gen 49:17) Jacob also said that Dan would be a judge over his own people (Gen 49:18). Ireland has been like a serpent biting at the heels to England. Ireland achieved self-government from British rule via a terrorist campaign against representatives of the British government. A coiled snake is also the symbol of the Irish Republican Army (the I.R.A.).

Asher was to be characterised by qualities such as we see in Belgium today. "Bread from Asher shall be rich and he shall yield royal dainties" (Gen. 49:20). Belgium has been long recognised for her cakes and pastries as well as her lace, porcelain and tapestries which have graced the halls of kings. Both Belgium and Luxembourg are especially blessed above many of the other nations of NW Europe with a high standard of living. "Let Asher be blessed with children; let him be acceptable to his brethren, and let him dip his foot in oil" (Deut 33:24). Oil was a symbol of prosperity.

Gad is a Hebrew word meaning "troop" which is a good description of Switzerland where every man is mobilized for defence. The French speaking Swiss appear to be descended from the tribe of Gad. "Blessed is he who enlarges Gad" (Deut. 33:20). The Swiss nation, per capita, is the richest nation in Europe.

Jacob also said that "a troop shall tramp upon him: but he shall triumph at last" (Gen 49:19). The Swiss broke away from the Holy Roman Empire around 1300 and have retained their independence for most of the time since. "He provided the first part for himself, because a lawgiver's portion was reserved there. He came with the heads of the people” (Deut 49:21). To Gad come "the heads of the peoples”. Geneva has been known as a place where heads of government meet for peace talks.

The identities of Isaachar, Naphtali and Benjamin are a little more obscure. Isaachar appears to be Finland. "Issachar is a strong ass couching down between two burdens. [He] bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute" (Gen. 49:14-15, KJV). Finland has long been caught between the stronger, competing nations of Sweden and Russia and for some of the past century was under tribute to both Russia and Germany.

Naphtali appears to be Sweden. The Amplified Bible renders Genesis 49:21 as "Naphtali is a hind let loose which yields lovely fawns". Sweden is known for its sexually open lifestyle and blond, Swedish women have had a reputation for their great beauty. Naphtali also "gives goodly words"(Gen. 49:21, KJV). From Sweden come the Nobel prizes.

"Benjamin is a ravenous . In the morning he shall devour the prey, and at night he shall divide the spoil (Gun 49:27). This is a very good description of the Vikings who pillaged Northern Europe. The Vikings came mostly from Norway who, along with the Danes, make up most of the population of Iceland. Just as Benjamin was the smallest tribe, so too, are the Norwegians amongst the other Israelite nations of Northwest Europe.

What lies ahead for the Modern Descendants of Israel?

The people of Israel have only ever partially fulfilled God's purpose for them to be a model nation to the rest of the world. Anciently they were at their best when Solomon ruled a mighty Israelite empire that briefly stretched from Egypt to the Euphrates River. In modern times Britain and America have morally been at their peak between 1850 and 1950. They, too, have only partially been a true model nation to the rest of the world.

Since the sexual and moral revolution of the 1960's, America and Britain, along with Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the NW European nations, have suffered a terrible moral degeneration with crime and sexual immorality and other sins rapidly escalating as they drift further and further away from God and His way of life. During the 1960's when the sexual revolution began Britain's empire rapidly shrunk with decolonization and signs of decay in America's power and political will began to show with their defeat in the Vietnam War. The birthright blessings were beginning to be taken away and replaced with the terrible curses for disobedience mentioned in Leviticus 26:14-39 and Deuteronomy 28:14-68.

The following prayer by Joe Wright, a minister called to give the opening prayer before an opening of the Kansas Senate in 2000 highlights just how far the nations descended from Israel have strayed from God's ways and why they will have to go through a terrible captivity in order to bring them to repentance.

“We know Your Word says, 'Woe to those who call evil good' [Isa. 5:20] but that's exactly what we've done.
“We have lost our spiritual equilibrium and we have inverted our values.
“We confess that we have ridiculed the absolute truth of Your Word and called it 'moral pluralism'.
“We have worshipped other gods and called it 'multiculturalism'.
“We have endorsed perversion and called it an 'alternative lifestyle'.
“We have exploited the poor and called it 'the lottery'.
“We have neglected the needy and called it 'self-preservation'.
“We have rewarded laziness and called it 'welfare'.
“We have killed our unborn and called it 'choice'.
“We have shot abortionists and called it 'justifiable'.
“We have neglected to discipline our children and called it 'building self-esteem'.
“We have abused power and called it 'political savvy'.
“We have coveted our neighbor's possessions and called it 'ambition'.
“We have polluted the air with profanity and pornography and dared called it 'freedom of expression'.
”We have ridiculed the time-honored values of our forefathers and called it 'enlightenment'".

What does the future hold for Israel and will Israel ever fulfill its destiny and become a true model nation to the rest of the world? In Deuteronomy 4:25-31 we read:

“When you beget children and grandchildren and have grown old in the land, and act corruptly and make a carved image in the form of anything, and do evil in the sight of the Lord your God to provoke Him to anger, I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that you will soon utterly perish from the land which you cross over the Jordan to possess; you will not prolong your days in it, but will be utterly destroyed. And the Lord will scatter you among the peoples, and you will be left few in number among the nations where the Lord will drive you. And there you will serve gods, the work of men's hands, wood and stone, which neither see nor hear nor eat nor smell. But from there you will seek the Lord your God, and you will find Him if you seek Him with all your heart and with all your soul.

“When you are in distress, and all these things come upon you in the latter days, when you turn to the Lord your God and obey His voice (for the Lord your God is a merciful God), He will not forsake you nor destroy you, nor forget the covenant of your fathers which He swore to them.”

Notice the time frame for when they will turn to God in true repentance – the latter days. It will be in the end-time at the end of man's rule and the beginning of God's rule when Jesus Christ returns. In the UCG booklet “The United States and Britain in Bible Prophecy” we read:

“Only when they are humbled to the point of repenting of their sins will they be able to fulfil their God-ordained destiny of serving as a blessing to the nations. This wonderful future, however, will be preceded by the severest of trials. As Moses delivered the ancient Israelites from Egyptian slavery, Jesus Christ is coming to deliver modern Britain and America and the other Israelite-descended nations from an end-of-the-age [captivity] by a modern religious and political system called 'Babylon the great' (Revelation 17), centered in Europe.

“Jeremiah wrote of a time of national trouble that is yet ahead for the modern descendants of the lost 10 tribes of Israel. Notice their condition when Christ returns: 'For behold, the days are coming,' says the LORD, 'that I will bring back from captivity My people Israel AND Judah ... And I will cause them to return to the land that I gave to their fathers, and they shall possess it' (Jeremiah 30:3).

”Then Jeremiah describes why God will have to intervene and save modern Israelites. 'Alas! For that day is great, so that none is like it; and it is the time of Jacob's trouble, but he shall be saved out of it. For it shall come to pass in that day,' says the LORD of hosts, 'that I will break his yoke from your neck, and will burst your bonds; foreigners shall no more enslave them' (verses 7-8). Notice that the 'yoke' and 'bonds' that enslave the descendants of Jacob are placed on them by 'foreigners' - enemy nations.

“It is out of this foreign domination and enslavement that Christ will deliver them at His second coming. This will be the time when King David and Christ's 12 apostles - along with all the rest of God's saints - will be resurrected to begin ruling with Christ over a restored Israel in the Kingdom of God (Ezekiel 37:24; Matthew 19:28)” (p.42, 44).

America and Britain will probably stand up to Europe for its invasion of the Middle East (Dan. 11:40-45) which triggers off the Great Tribulation, especially America who have been staunch allies of the state of Israel.

Whatever transpires in the aftermath of the Middle East invasion will lead to this power-hungry United Europe launching a major assault on our Israelite nations. The result will be that the war against America and Britain will wipe out a third of its people, another third will die of famine and disease and another third will be deported as slaves. (Ezek. 5:1-4, 12).

We know that the Israelite nations will be taken into captivity in the Great Tribulation but what proof is there that it will be the coming United Europe led by Germany (Assyria) that will defeat America and Britain?

In Revelation 18:7-8 we read the following about this political and religious Beast power which is also called Babylon in this chapter because politically and economically it is a continuation of the Babylonian system started by Nimrod at the Tower of Babel:

“In the measure that she glorified herself and lived luxuriously, in the same measure give her torment and sorrow; for she says in her heart, 'I sit as queen, and am no widow, and will not see sorrow.' Therefore her plagues will come in one day—death and mourning and famine. And she will be utterly burned with fire, for strong is the Lord God who judges her.”

In Isaiah 47:5-9 we read a parallel account of this prophecy:

“Sit in silence, and go into darkness, O daughter [end-time successor] of the Chaldeans [Babylon] for you shall no longer be called the Lady of Kingdoms. I was angry with My people. I have profaned My inheritance, and given them into your hand. You showed them no mercy; on the elderly you laid your yoke very heavily. And you said, 'I shall be a lady forever,' so that you did not take these things to heart, nor remember the latter end of them. Therefore hear this now, you who are given to pleasures, who dwell securely, who say in your heart, 'I am, and there is no one else besides me; I shall not sit as a widow, nor shall I know the loss of children'. But these two things shall come to you in a moment, in one day: the loss of children, and widowhood. They shall come upon you in their fullness.”

In Isaiah 10 we read:

“Woe to Assyria, the rod of My anger and the staff in whose hand is My indignation. I will send an ungodly nation, and against the people of My wrath. I will give him charge, to seize the spoil, to take the prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets. Yet he does not mean so, Nor does his heart think so; But it is in his heart to destroy, and cut off not a few nations. For he says, Are not my princes altogether kings?…

“Therefore it shall come to pass, when the Lord has performed all His work on Mount Zion and on Jerusalem, that He will say, 'I will punish the fruit of the arrogant heart of the king of Assyria, and the glory of his hty looks.' For he says: 'By the strength of my hand I have done it, and by my wisdom, for I am prudent; also I have removed the boundaries of the people, and have robbed their treasuries; so I have put down the inhabitants like a valiant man(Isa. 10:5-8, 12-13).

Verse 20 gives us the time frame of this captivity of Israel showing it is at the time of the Great Tribulation.

“And it shall come to pass in that day that the remnant of Israel, and such as have escaped of the house of Jacob, will never again depend on him who defeated them, but will depend on the Lord, the Holy One of Israel, in truth.”

There is a very interesting prophecy in Ezekiel 21:14 which reads:

“You therefore, son of man, prophesy, and strike your hands together. The third time let the sword do double damage. It is the sword that slays, the sword that slays the great men, that enters their private chambers.”

The coming World War III will be far more devastating than either World Wars I and II. And again for the third time, world war will be triggered off by the German people. History often has a habit of repeating itself (Ecc. 1:9). Asshur's jealousy towards his brother Arphaxad's descendants will one final time spill over into war. Isaiah 10:7 says the following about Assyria / Germany at this time:

“Yet he does not mean so, nor does his heart think so; but it is in his heart to destroy, and cut off not a few nations.”

In his book “The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich” hirer wrote:

“The Third Reich which was born on January 30, 1933, Hitler boasted, would endure for a thousand years, and in Nazi parlance it was often referred to as the “Thousand-Year Reich”. (page5. This information was based, in part, on the Proclamation of Sept 5, 1934, at Nuremberg).

Satan, through Hitler, was trying to counterfeit the millennium when Christ will rule on earth. Prior to the Battle of Britain, Churchill addressed the British people and said:

“What General Weygand called the Battle of France is over. The Battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon this battle depends the survival of civilization. Upon it depends our own British life and our empire. The whole fury and might of the enemy will soon be turned upon us. Hitler knows he will have to break us in this island or lose the war. Let us therefore give ourselves to our duty and so bear ourselves that if the British commonwealth and empire last one thousand years, men will say: 'This was their finest hour.' ”

While the British empire lasting a thousand years would have been a much greater blessing to the world than Hitler's Third Reich lasting for a millennium, the British have to be brought to true repentance before the time is right for that kind of long-lasting British dominance.

The Germans are a cultured and very efficient people capable of many great and wonderful things yet they periodically become an aggressive and proud people who are capable of such terrible things as well. In the World Tomorrow God will tame this aggressive tendency in the Germans nature when they are converted and receive God's spirit. In Isaiah 19:24-25 we read:

In that day Israel will be one of three with Egypt and Assyria— a blessing in the midst of the land, whom the Lord of hosts shall bless, saying, “Blessed is Egypt My people, and Assyria the work of My hands, and Israel My inheritance.”

The descendants of Israel (from Arphaxad) will live peacefully with the descendants of Asshur and then their strengths will be yoked together to help bless the whole world.

The Future Exodus and Restoration of Israel

When Christ returns He will bring the remaining Israelites of all the tribes back to the land of Palestine in an exodus that will be even bigger than that of Moses' day.

“'Therefore behold, the days are coming,' says the Lord, 'that it shall no more be said, 'The Lord lives who brought up the children of Israel from the land of Egypt,' but, 'The Lord lives who brought up the children of Israel from the land of the north and from all the lands where He had driven them.' For I will bring them back into their land which I gave to their fathers” (Jer. 16:14-15).

In Ezekiel 20:34-36 God says to His people at that time:

“I will bring you out from the peoples and gather you out of the countries where you are scattered, ighty hand, with an outstretched arm, and with fury poured out. And I will bring you into the wilderness of the peoples, and there I will plead My case with you face to face. Just as I pleaded My case with your fathers in the wilderness of the land of Egypt, so I will plead My case with you, says the Lord God. I will make you pass under the rod, and I will bring you into the bond of the covenant.”

They will be prepared in the wilderness and be offered the new covenant before they enter the Holy Land. They will be very humbled and repentant at this time after their awful slavery. They will loathe themselves for all the terrible sins they committed which led to God having to punish them (Ezek. 20:43).

In Ezekiel 36:27-28 God says to them:

“I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will keep My judgments and do them. Then you shall dwell in the land that I gave to your fathers; you shall be My people, and I will be your God.”

The prophecies show that only 1/3 of Israel will be taken captive during the Tribulation (Ezek. 5:1-4, 12), and that about one 10th of Israel will survive that captivity (Amos 5:3, Isaiah 6:13) before they are brought back to the Holy Land at Christ's return.

There are some fascinating parallels between the first exodus out of Egypt and the greater Exodus to come. When God brings back Israel a second time they will come from many directions including Europe and North Africa. Just as God parted the Red Sea for Israel during the first exodus God says that He will part the waters of the Nile for those coming from North Africa as they make their way to Palestine (Isa. 11:11-16). God will bring Israel out of modern Babylon just as He did with Israel out of Egypt. God will cause water to come out of the rocks for them who thirst just as he did at Horeb during the first exodus (Isa. 48:20-21).

Before entering Palestine God will first bring Israel into the wilderness and prepare them for entry into the Holy Land (Ezek. 20:33-37). At Mt Sinai God proposed the old covenant to ancient Israel. When God brings modern Israel into the wilderness for a time before they move into the Holy Land He will propose to them the new covenant to which they will agree to (Jer. 31:31-34). This time around God will give Israel the Holy Spirit and they will have the heart to be able to live God's way and keep the terms of the new covenant.

God says that He will purge out the rebels from Israel. Just as there was the rebellion of Korah during the first exodus there will be one this time which God will put down (Ezek. 20:38).

Craig White offers these comments showing the similarities between the first Exodus and the greater Exodus to come and the journey of spiritual Israel (the church):

The Exodus of Israel from Israel from Egypt, the crossing of the Red Sea, Wilderness wonderings, crossing of the Jordan and conquest of Canaan by Joshua are typological, as I am sure we have all heard. The typology follows two broad thoughts:

1. Spiritual Israelites go through the same basic travel through life of rescue from Satan, baptism, life of trial, baptism of the resurrection, entry into the spiritual Promised Land (Kingdom of God), finding rest.

2. Physical Israelites in these last days will be rescued from Babylon, go through a wilderness wondering where they will be cleansed and the Holy Spirit granted to them. They will take and enter the Promised Land of Israel led by Jesus Christ and His saints (Jesus is the Greek form of Joshua) and dwell there in peace (rest) (Israel – Descendants of Arphaxad).

Today the Jews and Americans are hated by many nations, particularly the Arab nations. This will all change in the millennium when all nations will praise them as they live by God's way of life. They will truly be an outstanding example of righteousness for the Gentiles nations to follow as they submit to Jesus Christ's rule over them.

“Their descendants shall be known among the Gentiles, and their offspring among the people. All who see them shall acknowledge them, that they are the posterity whom the Lord has blessed” (Isa. 61:9).

“The Gentiles shall see your righteousness, and all kings your glory” (Isa. 62:2).

The Gentiles nations will see how well they are blessed because they are following God and eagerly seek their guidance.

“Yes, many peoples and strong nations shall come to seek the Lord of hosts in Jerusalem, and to pray before the Lord. Thus says the Lord of hosts: 'In those days ten men from every language of the nations shall grasp the sleeve of a Jewish man, saying, 'Let us go with you, for we have heard that God is with you'” (Zech. 8:22-23).

All nations will keep the Feast of Tabernacles and the other Holy Days of God (Zech. 14:16). Isaiah also wrote of this future eagerness of the Gentile nations to follow Israel's example and learn God's ways.

“Many people shall come and say, 'Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; He will teach us His ways, and we shall walk in His paths.' For out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem'” (Isa. 2:3).

In the UCG booklet “The United States and Britain in Bible Prophecy” we read:

“The glory of the restored Israel will shine far greater than Israel's golden age under Solomon or that of any other nation or kingdom the world has ever seen. It will all come about because Christ will be the Head of the nation. Through its Creator Israel will gain 'fame and praise among all the peoples of the earth' (Zephaniah 3:20). Israel will finally become the example God intended her to be (p.47).

The nation of Israel divided into two kingdoms in the days of Solomon's son, Rehoboam. Ezekiel prophesied that at Christ's return the two kingdoms will be re-united as one nation – the Jews and the other tribes led by Joseph (America and Britain) will be one united nation (Ezek. 37:15-23). Craig White in his paper “Israel – Descendants of Arphaxad” makes these comments on this momentous reunion of the two kingdoms as one great nation of Israel:

In effect, there will be an Israelite union bringing about the fulfillment the dreams of certain men in Britain and the USA in the early decades of the twentieth century. Later some led a movement called 'Union Now' – an Anglo-Saxon-Celtic hegemony to rule the world – the British Empire and America were to join forces to do so. The Rhodes scholars were to be trained to be rulers for this honour. Churchill and other British leaders had similar hopes for British ruling classes to be set up all over the world. The time for this was premature, but certainly the British Empire was typological of the Millennial rule of Israel - presaging what the scriptures obviously demonstrate shall be.

Alas, liberals gradually took over the Rhodes Round Table organisation and it never fulfilled its purpose. In fact, it has been used for vastly different purposes than that which its founders intended. To this day there are groups which are still attempting to bring about a British-American union such as Private Action for British-US Union (

Israel to Become a Great Colonising People Again under Christ's rulership

Isaiah prophesied that in the millennium that:

“Israel shall blossom and bud, and fill the face of the world with fruit” (Isa. 27:6).

Of Israel in the millennium God also says:

“For you shall expand to the right and to the left, and your descendants will inherit the nations” (Isa. 54:3).

Hosea also wrote that in the millennium that Israel's “branches shall spread” (Hos. 14:6) which is the same phrase used by Jacob to describe how Joseph's descendants spread around the world in the days of the British Empire and colonized many nations (Gen. 49:22). Like in the days of the British Empire, they will go into other nations (Isa. 14:1-3), help rebuild their cities, develop their civil infrastructure and teach them God's way of life.

Like in the days of the British Empire they will go into other nations (Isa. 14:1-3), help rebuild their cities, develop their civil infrastructure and teach them God's values. Israel will finally fulfil their destiny and become a model nation of kings and priests (Exod. 19:4-6).

As the nations mature spiritually they will probably be granted independence like the decolonization that occurred during the 1960's of the British Empire and earlier with the more developed nations of Australia, New Zealand and Canada. Sadly, the standard of living in the African nations has dropped significantly since independence due to the corruption of the leaders who have taken over since then. Despite its many faults, overall Britain did a good job of being a kind mother country to its mighty empire but as children develop and mature independence should be granted to them at the right time.

The Israelite nations are gifted at administration and leadership. The English-speaking nations have also excelled in developing inventions and technology which helped lead the world into the industrial revolution and now the computer age.

Despite their faults these talents enabled Great Britain to be a blessing to the nations of the world (Gen.12:3) and help build the civil infrastructure and raise the standard of living amongst the Gentile nations who came under the British Empire. Similarly, America (along with Britain) has helped feed the developed nations with their agricultural abundance.

What stability we enjoy today in the international arena is mostly due to the overwhelming power and deterring threat of a superpower like America that defines international stability as a national interest. When their God-given talents of inventiveness and administration are used to glorify God they will truly be the kind of model nation God intended Israel to be.

Psalm 47 strongly implies that it will be through Israel (physical and/or spiritual Israel) that Christ will rule the world:

To the Chief Musician. A Psalm for the sons of Korah. Clap your hand, all you peoples; shout to God with the voice of triumph.
For Jehovah Most High is awesome, a great king over all the earth.
He shall humble the peoples under us, and nations under our feet.
He shall choose our inheritance for us, the majesty of Jacob whom He loved. Selah.
God has gone up with a shout, Jehovah with the sound of a trumpet.
Sing praise to God, sing praise; sing praise to our King, sing praise.
For God is King of all the earth; sing praises with understanding.
God reigns over the nations, God sits on the throne of His holiness.
The rulers of the peoples are gathered together, the people of the God of Abraham; for the shields of the earth are God's; He is lifted up on high.

Craig White in his paper “Israel – Descendants of Arphaxad” makes these fascinating comments on the future of Israel in the millennium, highlighting some very interesting scriptures and adding some intriguing speculation:

The scriptures indicate the House of Israel and Judah will form very important aspects of God's Kingdom. In the first century, the term 'Kingdom of God' referred to the time of the Messiah ruling from Jerusalem, gradually extending his Kingdom across the earth, through and with Israel:

Act 1:6 They therefore, when they were come together, asked him, saying, Lord, dost thou at this time restore the kingdom to Israel?

This demonstrates that it was clearly understood that the Kingdom of God was to be restored to be administered, at least in part, by Israel. So where are these tribes located today?

Why are they a colonizing people? What is God trying to teach us? Like a colony of bees, the English (Ephraim) under the aristocracy and with the Scots (Judah), were set up as ruling classes around the world with government pointing to the British Royalty, seated (so to speak) on the Stone of Scone (Jacob's pillar stone, which Christ will sit on upon His return). This teaches us the lesson that the Kingdom of God through Israel, will be a colonizing empire, typed by the British Empire.

In Isaiah 60:9-17; 49:20 we see that the Holy Land will become too small for Israel due to its population explosion, that she would have to set out to colonies and populate again. Here, the gentiles will serve Israel (Is 49:21-23) and therefore the old colonial territories will be repopulated (Is 66:19-20; 61:4). According to Gen 13:16; Is 54:2-3, we have indication of Israel's millennial colonies. Here they rule over the gentiles for their own good, in love and respect, under God and His children (see also Gen 9:27; Is 61:5-6, 9).

Then in Ezek 36:10-11 we are told that Israel will inhabit the former places (where they were taken captive from. See also Ps 80:8-11; Gen 49:22; Hos 14:5-8) and in Deut 4:5-8 we see that Israel will rule over the nations again – how can she do so unless she returns to her former lands of North America (as a light to the central and south Americans), NW Europe (to be a light to the Europeans), South Africa (to be a light to the Africans) and Australia and New Zealand (to be a light to the Asiatics and Pacific Islanders)?

Isa 14:1 For Jehovah will have mercy on Jacob, and will yet choose Israel and set them in their own land; and the stranger shall be joined with them, and they shall cling to the house of Jacob.
Isa 14:2 And the peoples shall take them and bring them to their place; and the house of Israel shall possess them in the land of Jehovah for slaves and slave girls. And they shall be captives of their captors; and they shall rule over their oppressors.

Here we see certain gentile nations, repentant, bringing Israel to the Holy Land and Israel taking them captive for a season. The logic is that the servitude of these peoples will be in accordance with Older Testament's laws on the subject and Biblical principles (Ex 21:1-6; Deut 15:1-5; 31:10) and will be for seven years. This servitude represents their repentance, at least in part. During this season of servitude, they will learn about God, learn new skills and come to understand that God's plan for mankind includes rulership through Judah and Israel…

The concepts of Christ, His body the Church and physical Israel are inextricably intertwined very closely in scripture – possibly more than we have often realised…

From the descriptions of the tribes, the way the acted in the Bible and from their modern histories, it would appear that they have definitive, organised roles… Judah produced the royal line, a warrior class and lawmakers. In other words they were to be the political leaders [Gen. 49:10, Jud. 20:18, Psa. 60:7, Zech 12:5-8]…It is self-evident that Levi shall be the priests (ministers or pastors) in the Millennium [Ezek.44:10-11, Jer. 33:14-18].

As we have seen in so many scriptures, Ephraim and Judah are often mentioned together [Zech. 10:6-7, Jer. 31:6-7]. Therefore, like the Scots and English, they must be in unison to some degree to assist in bringing about God's Kingdom on earth. These people are very innovative and suitable for colonizing due to their attributes. They shall continue to supply the majority of inhabitants to the colonies…

The Bible doesn't specify, but given the attributes of Anglo-Americans, they think big, mass produce goods and services which has resulted in 'globalisation' of the world's economy. It would seem that they would have a similar role in the Millennium…Similarly, the other tribes' contributions will be based on national talents and blessings…

Further, if ancient history can be believed, the spirits (demons) were very often visible to man, but gradually this visibility was withdrawn. Similarly, could it be that the spirit-born children of God will be visible to the world for the first part of the Millennium but will gradually appear less and less to man as the Millennium progresses and as power for world rulership is handed over to Israel?

This may account for the final rebellion of a Gog and Magog mentioned in Rev 20:7-9. If the spirit beings were constantly visible and known to man, it would be difficult to envisage nations falling for Satan's tricks or to pluck up the courage or to justify a rebellion.

But if Christ and His saints ruled the world through Israel, then feelings of jealousy, inferiority, supposed racism and injustices and so on, based on human emotions, may be reasons for the rebellion. Amongst other things, God created different races so that we can learn the lessons of maintaining boundaries, respect for differences, not to feel superior or inferior, and not to lust after the blessings of other nations and races. For all have been blessed, but it is God Who has set up nations for certain responsibilities based on natural gifts He has bestowed. He gives gifts to individuals, families, nations and races and it is therefore He who decides on their roles.

Even after the millennium Israel will play an important role in God's kingdom. We read in Revelation 21:10-12 how the names of all the tribes of Israel will be written on the gates on the New Jerusalem which will descend to earth when the Father comes down from heaven to dwell with mankind:

And he carried me away in the Spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me the great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God, having the glory of God. Her light was like a most precious stone, like a jasper stone, clear as crystal. Also she had a great and high wall with twelve gates, and twelve angels at the gates, and names written on them, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel:

The people of Israel truly have had a remarkable history and their prophesied future is every bit as amazing. While soon to go through the most awful time in their history, God will bring the modern descendants of Israel out of their coming captivity and they will truly become a model nation for the rest of the world to follow when Jesus Christ brings the Kingdom of God to earth. As they follow Israel's righteous example all nations will then become God's chosen people (Isa. 19:24-25, Rev. 17:14) and be brought into the great Family of God!